Άτλας Γ' ο Διαπρεπής
Hattusili, Χατουσίλι Γ', Αττασίλος
- Μητέρα: Gassulawiya
- ανώνυμη Βαβυλώνια πριγκίπισσα
- Nerik-kaili (πρίγκιπας-διάδοχος)
- Τάνταλος Δ' (Tudhaliya IV)
- Maathorneferure (το Χετταϊκό της όνομα, άγνωστο)
Ο αδελφός του, Μυβάταλλος Β' (Muwatalli II) τον διόρισε κυβερνήτη της Άτοσσας (Hattusa), όταν μετέφερε προσωρινά την έδρα της Χετταϊκής Αυτοκρατορίας στην Ταρκωνία (Tarhuntassa), εξ αιτίας ίσως της επιδρομής των Ασκανίων (Kaska).
Η μάχη υπήρξε αμφίρροπη αλλά έληξε ευνοϊκά για τους Χετταίους.
Στην συνέχεια, μετά τον θάνατο του βασιλέα-αδελφού του, ήλθε σε σύγκρουση με τον ανιψιό του Μυρσίλος Γ' (Mursili III), τον εκθρόνισε και τον εξόρισε.
Στον αγώνα κατά του ανιψιού του υποστηρίχθηκε από τον άλλον του ανιψιό του Kουρούντα, αδελφό του Μυρσίλος Γ', ο Κουρούντα ως ανταμοιβή ανέλαβε την διοίκηση της Ταρκωνίας (Tarhuntassa) (αν και θεωρείται πιθανόν ότι οι περισσότερες περιοχές της είχαν καταληφθεί από τους συμμάχους των Αχαιών (της Κρήτης) Ahhijawa).
Αντιμετώπισε ταραχές τα πρώτα έτη της βασιλείας του. Οι υποτελείς περιοχές εξεγέρθηκαν ενώ ο κίνδυνος από την Ασσυρία γινόταν μεγαλύτερος.
The deposed Hittite king, Mursili III, fled to Egypt, the land of his country's enemy, after the failure of his plots to oust his uncle from the throne. Ḫattušili III responded by demanding that Ramesses II extradite his nephew back to Hatti.
This demand precipitated a crisis in relations between Egypt and Hatti when Ramesses denied any knowledge of Mursili's whereabouts in his country, and the two empires came dangerously close to war.
Η συνθήκη αυτή έγινε πιθανότατα υπό την πίεση της Ασσυρίας που απειλούσε τις Συριακές κτήσεις τόσο της Αιγύπτου όσο και των Χετταίων.
Η συνθήκη επισφραγίστηκε 13 έτη αργότερα με τον γάμο του ίδιου του Ραμσή B' με μια κόρη του Άτλαντος Γ' (Hattusili III).
Οι Ασσύριοι μετά την συνθήκη αυτή αναγκάστηκαν να εγκαταλείψουν (τουλάχιστον προσωρινά) τις Συριακές βλέψεις τους και η βασιλεία του Άτλαντος Γ' (Hattusili III) έμεινε στην ιστορία ως η πλέον ειρηνική περίοδος της Χετταϊκής Αυτοκρατορίας.
Σημαντικό ρόλο στην περίοδο της βασιλείας του είχε η σύζυγος του, Πουντουχέπα, κόρη ιερέα από την Κιλικία, με μεγάλη επιρροή στον σύζυγο της έφερε στους Χετταίους νέα έθιμα, εδέσματα και εορτές.
Βρέθηκε ένα μεγάλο αρχείο στις ανασκαφές στην Χαττούσα με 200 επιστολές που αντάλλαξε με τους ηγεμόνες των ξένων κρατών ανάμεσα τους και τον Ραμσή Β', πολύ διαφωτιστικές για την διεθνή πολιτική της εποχής του.
Τον διαδέχθηκε ο γιός του Tudhalija IV.
Grandson of Suppiluliuma
Hattusili starts the apology by listing part of his geneology He tells us that he is the son of Mursili, grandson of Suppiluliuma, and descendant of the original Hattusili
Hattusili next praises the Goddess Ishtar for her benevolence He wishes for his son, grandson, and further offspring to have equal respect for her
Geneology and Prooemium
Hattusili was the last of 4 children
He was always a great chariot/horse rider
His brother Muwatalli was sent a vision by Ishtar
She told him that Hattusili had not long to live unless his father gave him to her as her priest. Muwatalli told his father and Hattusili became a priest
He experienced prosperity as Ishtar’s priest
Hattusili's early youth
Mursili died and Muwatalli became king
Hattusili was made Chief of the Royal Bodyguard by Muwatalli and was given “The Upper Country” to govern
When people saw how good his brother and Ishtar had been to him they became jealous Armatarhunta, the previous “Upper Country” governor engaged him in several lawsuits Ishtar told him in a vision that she would “leave him to the deity of the process” He was acquitted of all charges against him
Hattusili under Muwatalli
Ishtar saved Hattusili from illness and protected him from his enemies Because the gods provided for him he never did anything wrong against anyone Hattusili finishes the section by praising Ishtar for her help
Muwatalli saw that there were no remaining allegations against Hattusili, so he put him back in charge of all the troops in the empire Muwatalli sent Hattusili to fight many battles Hattusili was successful in all his of many campaigns He neglects to mention the countries he conquered, instead deciding to write them on a separate tablet to be given to the temple
Hattusili's early military successes
Muwatalli left Hattusa for Tarhuntassa at the urging of his personal deity
Once Muwatalli left Hattusa, the Kaska lands of Pishuru and Daistipassa revolted, destroying many lands and fortresses.
The cities of Kurustama and Gazziura began to raid Hittite cities
Enemies from the land of Durmitta invaded and penetrated deep into Hittite land
Eventually all of the Kaska lands became hostile
Muwatalli leaves the capital
Hattusili supresses the Kaskaeans
Muwatalli sent Hattusili with a small number of troops to fight the invaders
Hattusili fought the enemy at the city of Hahha. Ishtar allowed him victory
He resettled the area and handed the enemy commanders to his brother
The Pishureans invaded and took Karahna and Marista
The enemy had 800 teams of horses and uncountable troops, while Hattusili was provided with only 120 teams of horses and no men
Ishtar once again allowed him victory
Hattusili's further success against the Kaskaeans
Muwatalli fortified the newly taken lands and sent the Hatti troops home
He then left and set up residence in the city of Tarhuntassa
Hattusili was given many northern lands and troops to command, and was made king of the land of Hakpis
Hattusili resettled the lands and made them Hittite again
Hattusili becomes King of Hakpis
Hattusili led his forces at the Battle of Kadesh Armatarhunta once again became jealous of Ishtar’s benevolence towards Hattusili and began to cast spells against him
Hattusili was able to counteract the spells by bringing offerings to Ishtar back from the war Hattusili married Puduhepa at Ishtar’s urging and had several children
Hakpis became hostile and Hattusili reclaimed it, becoming King of Hakpis once again
The battle at Kadesh
Armatarhunta's second attempt to bar Hattusili, Hattusili's marriage
Armatarhunta reopened his lawsuit against Hattusili, but Ishtar helped him prevail again
Armatarhunta was discovered to be practicing witchcraft, so his property, wife and sons were turned over to Hattusili by Muwatalli
Since Hattusili won the case and Armatarhunta was a relative of his, Hattusili returned half his property and one son, Sippaziti, and exiled his wife and remaining sons to Cyprus
When Muwatalli died, he had no legitimate heir so Hattusili put Urhitesub, Muwatalli’s son by his concubine, in power
Armatarhunta's downfall, Muwatalli succeeded by Urhitesub
Urhitesub became jealous of Ishtar’s favor towards Hattusili
Urhitesub took Hattusili’s army away along with the cities he had resettled from wars
Hattusili was left with Hakpis and Nerik
Hattusili eventually became angry with his treatment and so declared war on Urhitesub
“You opposed me. You are Great King, whereas I am king of the single fortress that you left me. So come! Ishtar of Samuha and the Stormgod of Nerik will judge us.”
When Urhitesub received the challenge, he moved to the Upper Country with Sippaziti and summoned his troops there
Hattusili declares war on Urhitesub
Ishtar appeared in Hattusili’s wife’s dreams, telling her that she will walk ahead of Hattusili and help him in his fight
Ishtar appeared in the dreams of Urhitesub’s generals and told them “All Hatti lands I have turned over to Hattusili.”
Hattusili was aided by the Kaskaeans and Hattusa
He retrieved Urhitesub as a prisoner from Samuha and sent him to the country of Nuhasse
Urhi-tesub again plotted against Hattusili, and was sent to live alongside the sea
Sippaziti was exiled for his treachery
The Downfall of Urhi-tesub
Hattusili summarizes his life, from prince to Chief of the Royal Bodyguard to King of Hakpis to Great King and thanks Ishtar for giving him kingship
The other kings of the land respected him
He expanded his kingdom and made peace with previous enemies
He installed his nephew Kurunta as king of Tarhuntassa
Hattusili gave all the land he received from Armatarhunta to Ishtar, which involved building a statue of her behind every cult monument
He sets forth that his son Tuthaliya will rule after his death
Σχέσεις με Τροία
In the Tawalagawa letter the Hittite King Hattusili III (about 1265-1240 BC) wrote to the Great King of Ahhiyawa (Achaeans) about his concern for the activity of Piyama-radu who in collusion with the Ahhiyawa king's brother Tawagalawa (which seems correspond to the Greek name of Deucalion) based in Milawanda (Miletus) are making raids in Lycia.
In the Manapa-Dattas letter the king of the Seha river land (South of Wilusa) wrote to an not identified Hittite King Hattusili III or Tudhalija III/IV (about 1240-1215 BC). In this letter Manapa-Dattas make reference to an Hittite army which is moving on west and to somebody who is making war action in the Wilusa area. Furthermore the Seha river land has been attacked by Piyama-radu army which has also attacked Lesbos island
- Trevor Bryce, "Life and Society in the Hittite World," Oxford (2002).
- Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford (1999).
- C. W. Ceram, The Secret of the Hittites: The Discovery of an Ancient Empire. Phoenix Press (2001), ISBN 1842122959.
- J. G. Macqueen, The Hittites, and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor, revised and enlarged, Ancient Peoples and Places series (ed. G. Daniel), Thames and Hudson (1986), ISBN 0-500-02108-2.
- McMahon, G., Hittite History, Biblical Archaeologist 52 (1989), 62 - 77
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)