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Αστεροσκοπεία Γης


Palomar Obseratory .

Ακολουθεί κατάλογος των διασημότερων αστεροσκοπείωντης Γης.


Space observatory
Gravitational observatory
Antimatter observatory
Airborne observatory
Radio observatory
Microwave observatory
Ground based observatory
Solar observatory
Neutrino observatory
Cosmic-ray observatory

This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location. The list also includes a final year of operation for many observatories that are no longer in operation. While other sciences, such as volcanology and meteorology, also use facilities called observatories for research and observations, this list is limited to observatories that are used to observe celestial objects.

Astronomical observatories are mainly divided into four categories: space based, airborne, ground based and underground based.

Many modern telescopes and observatories are located in space to observe astronomical objects in wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere (such as ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays) and are thus impossible to observe using ground-based telescopes. [1] Being above the atmosphere, these space observatories can also avoid the effects of atmospheric turbulence that plague ground based telescopes, although new generations of adaptive optics telescopes have since then dramatically improve the situation on the ground. The space high vacuum environment also allow to free the detectors from the ancestral diurnal cycle due to the atmospheric blue light background of the sky, therefore increasing significantly the observation time.

An intermediate variant is the airborne observatory, specialised in the infrared wavelengths of the EM spectrum, that conduct observations above the part of the atmosphere containing water vapor that absorbs them, in the stratosphere.

Historically, astronomical observatories consisted generally in a building or group of buildings where observations of astronomical objects such as sunspots, planets, asteroids, comets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies in the visible wavelenghts of the electromagnetic spectrum were conducted. At first, for milleniums, astronomical observations have been made with naked eyes. Then with the discovery of optics, with the help of different types of refractor telescopes and later with reflector telescopes. Their use allowed to dramatically increase both the collecting power and limit of resolution, thus the brightness, level of detail and apparent angular size of distant celestial objects allowing them to be better studied and understood. Following the development of modern physics, new ground based facilities have been constructed to conduct researches in the radio and microwaves wavelenghts of the electromagnetic spectrum, with radio telescopes and dedicated microwave telescopes.

Modern astrophysics has extended the field of study of celestial bodies to non electromagnetic vectors, such as neutrinos, neutrons and cosmic-rays or gravitational waves. Thus new types of observatories have been developed. Interferometers are at the core of gravitational wave detectors. In order to limit the natural or artificial background noise, most particle detector based observatories are build deep underground.



Ονομασία Ίδρυση Τοποθεσία
Abu Reyhan-e Birooni Observatory 1976 Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Aker Observatory 1995 Safford, Arizona (USA)
Aldershot Observatory 1906 Aldershot, Hampshire (England)
Allegheny Observatory 1859 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)
Ametlla de Mar Observatory 1992 l'Ametlla de Mar, Catalonia, (Spain)
Anderson Mesa Station 1959 Flagstaff, Arizona, (USA)
Andromeda Observatory 1992 Isle of Man
Angell Hall Observatory Ann Arbor, Michigan (USA)
Anglo-Australian Observatory 1971 Coonabarabran, Australia
Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array 2002 Antarctica
Apache Point Observatory Sunspot, New Mexico (United States)
Apatity Cosmic-Ray Station Apatity, Russia
Apollo Observatory 1969 Dayton, Ohio (USA)
Arcetri Observatory Arcetri, Florence, Italy
Arecibo Observatory 1963 Arecibo, Puerto Rico (USA)
Armagh Observatory 1790 Armagh, United Kingdom
Ashton Observatory 1983 Baxter, Iowa (USA)
Asiago Observatory 1942 Asiago, Italy
Astron (defunct) 1983-1989 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon 1867 Lisbon, Portugal
Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 2003 Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Chile
Australia Telescope Compact Array 1988 Narrabri, Australia


Ονομασία Ίδρυση Τοποθεσία
Badlands Observatory 2000 Quinn, South Dakota (USA)
Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope 1993 Baikal Lake, Russia
Baker Observatory Marshfield, Missouri (USA)
Baksan Neutrino Observatory 1977 Prielbrusye, Baksan Valley, Russia
Ball State University Observatory Muncie, Indiana (USA)
Barnard Observatory (defunct) 1859 Oxford, Mississippi (USA)
Bareket observatory israel 1990 Macabim, Israel
Behlen Observatory 1972 Mead, Nebraska (USA)
Beijing Astronomical Observatory 1958 Beijing, China
Beijing Ancient Observatory 1442 Beijing, China
Belogradchik Observatory 1961 Belogradchik, Bulgaria
Benmore Peak Observatory 1996 Mackenzie Basin, South Island, New Zealand
BeppoSAX (defunct) 1996-2003 Low Earth orbit
Bergisch Gladbach Observatory Bergisch Gladbach, Germany
Berlin Observatory 1711 Germany
Besançon Observatory 1882 Besançon, France
BESS 1993 Antarctic
Big Bear Lake Solar Observatory 1969 Big Bear City, California (USA)
Black Moshannon Observatory (defunct) Pennsylvania, (USA)
BOOTES 1985 Spain
Bordeaux Observatory 1878 Floirac, France
Boswell Observatory (defunct) 1883 Crete, Nebraska, (USA)
Bowman Observatory 1940 Greenwich, Connecticut (USA)
Boyden Observatory 1889 Bloemfontein, South Africa
Bradstreet Observatory 1996 St. Davids, Pennsylvania (USA)
Bradley Observatory 1950 Decatur, Georgia (USA)
Braeside Observatory 1976 Flagstaff, Arizona (USA)
Brera Observatory 1764 Milan, Italy
Brooks Observatory Toledo, Ohio (USA)
Brooks Astronomical Observatory 1964 Mount Pleasant, Michigan (USA)
Brorfelde Observatory Holbæk, Denmark
Bucknell Observatory Lewisburg, Pennsylvania (USA)
Bucharest Observatory 1910 Bucharest, Romania
Byurakan Observatory 1942 Mount Aragats, Armenia

== C[]

Ονομασία Ίδρυση Τοποθεσία
Cagigal Observatory 1888 Caracas, Venezuela
Cagliari Observatory 1899 Cagliari, Sardinia
Calar Alto Observatory 1975 Almería, Spain
Caltech Submillimeter Observatory Mauna Kea, Hawaii, (USA)
Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory Guarcino, Frosinone, (Italy)
Canopus Hill Observatory Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)
Capilla Peak Observatory Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA)
Carter Observatory 1937 Wellington, New Zealand
Catania Astrophysical Observatory Catania, Italy
Celestial Observatory Russellville, Arkansas (USA)
Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1962 Atacama Desert, Chile
Cerro Pachón Observatory 2000 Atacama Desert, Chile
Chabot Space & Science Center 1883 Oakland, California (USA)
Chamberlin Observatory 1890 Denver, Colorado (United States)
Changchun Astronomical Observatory Changchun, Jilin Province, China
Chandra X-ray Observatory 1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Chico Community Observatory Chico, California (USA)
Cincinnati Observatory 1843 Cincinnati, Ohio (USA)
City Observatory, Edinburgh 1818 Edinburgh, Scotland
Clarke Observatory 1897 / 1923 Dunkirk, New York / Alliance, Ohio, (USA)
Coats Observatory 1883 Paisley, Scotland
Coit Observatory Boston, Massachusetts (USA)
Collm Observatory Leipzig, Germany
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (defunct) 1991–2000 Low earth orbit
Concordia College Observatory Moorhead, Minnesota, (USA)
Consell Observatory 1987 Majorca, (Spain)
Copenhagen University Observatory 1861 Copenhagen, Denmark
Cordell-Lorenz Observatory Sewanee, Tennessee (USA)
COROT 2006 Polar orbit
Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) 1999 Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Chile
Côte d'Azur Observatory 1988 France
Crane Observatory Topeka, Kansas (USA)
Crawford Observatory 1880 Cork, Ireland
Creighton University Observatory (defunct) 1886–1955 Omaha, Nebraska, (USA)
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory 1945 Ukraine
Črni Vrh Observatory 1975 Idrija, Slovenia
Cupillari Observatory La Plume, Pennsylvania (USA)
CUASAR, University of Valencia observatory 2008 Aras de los Olmos, Valencia (Spain)
Custer Observatory 1927 Southold, New York (USA)


Ονομασία Ίδρυση Τοποθεσία
Daniel Scholl Observatory (defunct) 1886–1966 Lancaster, Pennsylvania (USA)
Darling's Observatory (defunct) 1917 Duluth, Minnesota (USA)
Detroit Observatory 1854 Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
David Dunlap Observatory 1935 Richmond Hill, Ontario (Canada)
Dome C Antarctica
Domingos Forlin Observatory 2003 Videira, Santa Catarina, (Brazil)
Dominion Observatory 1905 Ottawa, Ontario, (Canada)
Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1947 Victoria, B.C., British Columbia (Canada)
Dunsink Observatory 1785 Dublin, Ireland
Dyer Observatory 1953 Brentwood, Tennessee (USA)


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Effelsberg Radio Telescope

Name Established Location
Echo Valley Observatory Algonquin Park, Ontario (Canada)
Effelsberg Radio Telescope 1972 Bonn, Germany
Einstein Observatory (defunct) 1978 Low Earth orbit
Elginfield Observatory 1969 Middlesex Centre, Ontario (Canada)
Eskdalemuir Observatory 1908 Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland
European Gravitational Observatory 2003 Cascina, Italy
European Southern Observatory
  • La Silla Observatory
  • Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
  • Paranal Observatory
  • 1969
  • 2005
  • 1999
Atacama Desert, Chile



Fabra Observatory

Name Established Location
Fabra Observatory 1906 Barcelona, Spain
Fan Mountain Observatory 1966 Albemarle County, Virginia (USA)
Farm Cove Observatory 2000 Auckland, New Zealand
Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope 2013 Duyun, Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, China
Félix Aguilar Observatory 1965 San Juan, Argentina
Fernbank Observatory Atlanta, Georgia (USA)
Fick Observatory 1966 Boone, Iowa (United States)
Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 1976 New Salem, Massachusetts (United States)
Flarestar Observatory San Gwann, Malta
Foggy Bottom Observatory 1951 Hamilton, New York (USA)
Foothill Observatory Los Altos Hills, California (USA)
Ford Observatory 1998 Ithaca, New York (USA)
Fox Observatory Sunrise, Florida (USA)
Fox Park Public Observatory 1999 Potterville, Michigan (USA)
Francis Marion University Observatory 1982 Florence, South Carolina (USA)
Fremont Peak Observatory 1986 San Juan Bautista, California (USA)
Frosty Drew Observatory 1980s Charlestown, Rhode Island (USA)
Fuertes Observatory 1920's Ithaca, New York (USA)


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Griffith Observatory

Name Established Location
Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) 2003 Caltech, JPL
Galloway Forest Observatory 2007 Newton Stewart, Wigtownshire, Scotland, UK
Gemini Observatory 1999 Southern Operations Center: La Serena, Chile; Northern Operations Center: Hilo, Hawaii
Gifford Observatory 1912 Wellington, New Zealand
Givatayim Observatory 1969 Givatayim, Israel
Glen D. Riley Observatory 1973 Naperville, Illinois, (USA)
Godlee Observatory 1902 Manchester, England
Goodsell Observatory 1887 Northfield, Minnesota, (USA)
Goethe Link Observatory 1939 Brooklyn, Indiana (United States)
Goldendale Observatory 1973 Goldendale, Washington (United States)
Gornergrat (HFSJG) (defunct) 1967-2005 Gornergrat, Switzerland
Granat (defunct) 1989-1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Gran Telescopio Canarias 2006 Canary Islands, (Spain)
Grant O. Gale Observatory 1984 Grinnell, Iowa (USA)
Green Bank Telescope, Green Bank, West Virginia, (USA)
Green Point Observatory, 1961 Sutherland, New South Wales (Australia)
Griffith Observatory 1935 Los Angeles, California, (USA)
Guillermo Haro Observatory Cananea, Sonora (Mexico)


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The Hubble Space Telescope

Name Established Location
HALCA (defunct) 1997–2005 Elliptical earth-centered orbit
Haleakala Observatory Maui, Hawaii, (USA)
Halley Observatory 1987 Heesch, Netherlands
Hamburg Observatory 1803 Hamburg, Germany
Hancock Astrophysical Observatory San Juan Bautista, California, (USA)
Hat Creek Radio Observatory 1950s Shasta County, California, (USA)
Hard Labor Creek Observatory Atlanta, Georgia (USA)
Hartung-Boothroyd Observatory 1974 Ithaca, New York (United States)
Harvard College Observatory 1839 Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 1973 Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)
Haute-Provence Observatory 1937 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France
Haystack Observatory 1964 Westford, Massachusetts, (USA)
Helsinki University Observatory 1834 Helsinki/Kirkkonummi, Finland
Herrett Observatory 2004 Twin Falls, Idaho (USA)
Herschel Space Observatory 2008 (planned) Earth-Sun L2 point
Hidden Valley Observatory 1960s Rapid City, South Dakota, (USA)
Hirsch Observatory 1942 Troy, New York, (USA)
Hobbs Observatory 1974 Fall Creek, Wisconsin (USA)
Hoher List Observatory 1954 Daun, Germany
Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium 1954 Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)
Hong Kong Observatory 1883 Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong SAR, China
Hopkins Observatory 1838 Williamstown, Massachusetts (USA)
Howell Observatory Starkville, Mississippi, (USA)
Hradec Králové Observatory 1961 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Huairou Solar Observing Station Beijing, China
Hubble Space Telescope 1990 Low Earth orbit
Hyde Memorial Observatory 1977 Lincoln, Nebraska, (USA)


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The Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes. Also shown is the Dutch Open Telescope, the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope.

Name Established Location
Indian Astronomical Observatory 2001 Hanle, India
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias 1975 Canary Islands, (Spain)
Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique 1979 Spain, France and Germany
INTEGRAL 2002 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) (defunct) January-November 1983 Earth orbit
Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) (defunct) 1995–1998 Earth orbit
Innsbruck Observatory Innsbruck, Austria
IRAM - 30 m 1984 Pico Veleta, Spain
IRAM - Plateau de Bure Interferometer 19?? Plateau de Bure, France
Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 1979 La Palma, Spain
Iso-Heikkilä Observatory (defunct) 1935 (only amateur use since 1972) Turku, Finland


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Jantar Mantar at Jaipur

Name Established Location
Jack C. Davis Observatory 2002 Carson City, Nevada, USA
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 1987 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
James Webb Space Telescope 2013 (planned) Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point
Jantar Mantar 1727 Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Jena Observatory 1962 Jena, Germany
Jewett Observatory 1953 Pullman, Washington (USA)
Jodrell Bank Observatory 1945 Cheshire, England
Jones Observatory 1936 Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA)
Judson B. Coit Observatory Boston, Massachusetts (USA)


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McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory

Name Established Location
Khajeh Nasiredin Observatory ~1980 Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran)
Kamioka Observatory 1983 Hida, Gifu, Japan
Kanzelhoehe Solar Observatory 1943 Villach, Austria
Karl Schwarzschild Observatory 1960 Jena, Germany
Keck Observatory 1993 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, (USA)
Keeble Observatory 1963 Ashland, Virginia (USA)
Kennon Observatory 1939 Oxford, Mississippi (USA)
Kepler Space Observatory 2008 (planned) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit
Kevola Observatory 1963 Kevola, Finland
Kielder Observatory 2008 Kielder Forest, Northumberland, England, United Kingdom
Kirkwood Observatory 1901 Bloomington, Indiana (United States)
Kitami Observatory Hokkaidō, Japan
Kitt Peak National Observatory 1958 Tucson, Arizona (United States)
Kleť Observatory 1957 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Kodaikanal Solar Observatory 1899 Palani, India
Konkoly Observatory 1871 Budapest, Hungary
KOSMA observatory 1985 Gornergrat, Switzerland
Kuiper Airborne Observatory 1974 14 km in the stratosphere
Kvistaberg Observatory Sweden
Kyung Hee Observatory 1992 Seoul, South Korea


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24" Clark Telescope Dome at Lowell Observatory

Name Established Location
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble 2001 Grenoble, France
Observatorio de La Cañada (La Cañada Observatory) 2002 Ávila, (Spain)
Ladd Observatory 1891 Providence, Rhode Island (United States)
Lake Afton Public Observatory 1979 Wichita, Kansas (USA)
Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl 1898 Königstuhl, Heidelberg, Germany
La Plata Astronomical Observatory 1883 La Plata, Argentina
La Silla Observatory 1969 Atacama Desert, Chile
Large Millimeter Telescope Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico
Las Brisas Observatory 1979 Colorado, (USA)
Las Campanas Observatory La Serena, Chile
Laws Observatory 1880 Columbia, Missouri (USA)
Leander McCormick Observatory 1885 Mount Jefferson, Charlottesville, Virginia (USA)
Lee Observatory 1873 American University of Beirut, Beirut, (Lebanon)
Leiden Observatory 1633 Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands
Leipzig Observatory Leipzig, Germany
Leoncito Astronomical Complex 1986 Calingasta, San Juan, (Argentina)
Levenhagen Observatory Seattle, Washington (USA)
Libyan National Telescope Project Kufra Desert, Libya
Lick Observatory 1881 Mount Hamilton, San Jose, California (United States)
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory 2005 Atacama Desert, Chile
Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory 1975 Mèrida, Venezuela
Lowell Observatory
  • Anderson Mesa Station
  • 1959
Flagstaff, Arizona (USA)
Lulin Observatory 1999 Mount Lulin, Taiwan
Lund Observatory 1749 Lund, Sweden
Luoxue Mountain Cosmic Rays Research Center 1953 Luoxue Mountain, Yunnan Province, China
Lyon Observatory 1877 Saint-Genis-Laval, France



The 100" Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory

Name Established Location
Macalester College Observatory Saint Paul, Minnesota (USA)
Magdalena Ridge Observatory (under construction) 2006 Socorro County, New Mexico, (USA)
Majorca Observatory 1991 Majorca, (Spain)
Manastash Ridge Observatory 1972 Ellensburg, Washington (USA)
Maragheh Observatory 1259 Maragheh, Iran
Margaret M. Jacoby Observatory 1978 Warwick, Rhode Island (USA)
Maria Mitchell Observatory 1908 Nantucket, Massachusetts (USA)
Markree Observatory 1837 County Sligo, Ireland
Marseille Observatory Marseille, France
Martz Observatory Chautauqua County, New York (USA)
Mauna Kea Observatory 1967 Mauna Kea, Hawaii, (USA)
Mauna Loa Solar Observatory Hawaii, (USA)
Maynard F. Jordan Observatory 1901 Orono, Maine (USA)
McDonald Observatory Davis Mountains, Texas, (USA)
McKim Observatory 1884 Greencastle, Indiana (USA)
McMath-Hulbert Solar Observatory 1930 Lake Angelus, Michigan (USA)
MDM Observatory Kitt Peak, Arizona, (USA)
Mead Observatory 2001 Columbus, Georgia (USA)
Mees Observatory Rochester, New York (USA)
Mehalso Observatory Erie, Pennsylvania (USA)
Melbourne Observatory 1862 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Melton Memorial Observatory 1928 Columbia, South Carolina (USA)
Mendenhall Observatory 2002 Stillwater, Oklahoma (USA)
Menke Observatory 1994 Davenport, Iowa, (USA)
Metsähovi Observatory 1966 Kirkkonummi, Finland
Meudon Observatory 1876 Meudon, France
Meyer-Womble Observatory 1996 Mount Evans, Colorado (United States)
Michigan State University Observatory 1969 East Lansing, Michigan (USA)
Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées
  • Pic du Midi Observatory
  • Toulouse Observatory
  • 1878
  • 1733
Headquarters: Toulouse, France
  • Pyrenees, France
  • Toulouse, France
Miller Observatory 1976 Maiden, North Carolina (USA)
Mills Observatory 1935 Balgay Hills, Dundee (Scotland)
MMT Observatory 1987 Mount Hopkins, Arizona, (USA)
Moletai Astronomical Observatory 1969 Moletai, Lithuania
Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) 1960 Bungendore, New South Wales, Australia
Mont Mégantic Observatory 1978 Mont Mégantic, Québec, Canada
Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy 1972 Monterey, California, (USA)
Moore Observatory 1978 Oldham County, Kentucky (USA)
Morris Observatory 1973 North Manchester, Indiana (USA)
Morrison Observatory Fayette, Missouri, (USA)
Moscow Cosmic-Ray Station Troitsk, Russia
Mounds Observatory Tulsa, Oklahoma, (USA)
Mount Cuba Astronomical Observatory Greenville, Delaware (USA)
Mount Graham International Observatory 1993 Mount Graham, Arizona, (USA)
Mount John University Observatory Lake Tekapo, South Island, New Zealand
Mount Laguna Observatory 1968 San Diego, California, (USA)
Mount Lemmon Observatory Tucson, Arizona, (USA)
Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory Tasmania
Mount Stromlo Observatory 1911 Canberra, Australia
Mount Suhora Observatory 1987 Poland
Mount Wilson Observatory 1904 Mount Wilson, Los Angeles County, California, (USA)
Mountain Skies Observatory 1997 Lyman, Wyoming (USA)
Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory 1957 Cambridge, England


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Nice Observatory

Name Established Location
Nachi-Katsuura Observatory Nachikatsuura, Wakayama, Japan
Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Research Centre 1958 Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 1988 Headquarters: Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan
National Astronomical Observatory of Mexico 1970 Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico
National Observatory of Athens 1846 Athens, Greece
National Optical Astronomy Observatory
1982 Headquarters: Tucson, Arizona, USA
National Optical Observatory Turkey
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
  • Atacama Large Millimeter Array
  • Green Bank Telescope
  • Very Large Array
  • Very Long Baseline Array
1957 Headquarters: Charlottesville, Virginia, (USA)
National Solar Observatory Sunspot, New Mexico (United States) & Kitt Peak, Arizona, (USA)
Naylor Observatory Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (USA)
Neuchâtel Observatory 1858 Neuchâtel,Switzerland
Nice Observatory 1879 Nice, France
Norman Lockyer Observatory 1912 Sidmouth, Devon, England
Nordic Optical Telescope 1988 Canary Islands, (Spain)
Norilsk Cosmic-Ray Station Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
North Georgia Astronomical Observatory Dahlonega, Georgia (USA)
North Otago Astronomical Society Observatory Oamaru, South Island, New Zealand
Nyrölä Observatory 1997 Jyväskylän maalaiskunta, Finland


Name Established Location
Observatorio Astronomico Nacional 1961 Tonantzintla, Mexico
Observatorio Solar Carl Sagan 2000 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Oil Region Astronomical Observatory Venango County, Pennsylvania (USA)
Ondřejov Observatory 1898 Ondřejov, Czech Republic
Onsala Space Observatory 1949 Onsala, Sweden
Orion 1 (defunct) 1971 Low Earth orbit
Orion 2 (defunct) 1973 Low Earth orbit
Otter Creek Observatory 1995 Meade County, Kentucky (USA)
Oulu Cosmic-Ray Station Oulu, Russia
Owens Valley Radio Observatory Bishop, California, (USA)


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Perth Observatory

Name Established Location
Palisades-Dows Observatory 1987 Cedar Rapids, Iowa (USA)
Palomar Observatory 1948 Palomar Mountain, California (USA)
Panzano Observatory Bologna, Italy
Paranal Observatory 1999 Cerro Paranal, Atacama desert, Chile
Paris Observatory 1667 Paris, France
Parkes Observatory 1961 Parkes, Australia
Paul Robinson Observatory 1965 High Bridge, New Jersey (USA)
Peach Mountain Observatory 1950 near Dexter, Michigan, (USA)
Perkins Observatory 1931 Delaware, Ohio (United States)
Perth Observatory 1896 Perth, Australia
Pic du Midi Observatory 1878 Pic du Midi, Pyrenees, France
Pico dos Dias Observatory 1981 Minas Gerais, Brazil
Piera Observatory 1968 Barcelona, (Spain)
Pine Bluff Observatory 1958 Cross Plains, Wisconsin (United States)
Pine Mountain Observatory 1965 Bend, Oregon (USA)
Pistoia Mountains Astronomical Observatory 1990 Pian dei Termini (near San Marcello Pistoiese), Italy
Poznań Observatory 1919 Poznań, Poland
Pulkovo Observatory 1839 Pulkovskiye Heights, Russia
Purple Mountain Observatory 1929 Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China


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Quito Observatory

Name Established Location
Quito Astronomical Observatory 1873 La Alameda Park, Quito (Ecuador)


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Royal Greenwich Observatory

Name Established Location
Radcliffe Observatory 1772 Oxford, England. Moved to Durban, South Africa in 1939
Rainwater Observatory French Camp, Mississippi (USA)
Ralph A. Worley Observatory 1964 Shreveport, Louisiana (USA)
Red Barn Observatory 2006 Ty Ty, Georgia (USA)
Red Buttes Observatory 1994 Laramie, Wyoming (USA)
Riley Observatory 1974 Naperville, Illinois (USA)
RIT Observatory Rochester, New York (USA)
Robert Brownlee Observatory Lake Arrowhead, California (USA)
Robinson Observatory Orlando, Florida (USA)
Robotic Lunar Observatory 1995 Flagstaff, Arizona (USA)
Rogers Observatory 1981 Traverse City, Michigan (USA)
Rolnick Observatory Westport, Connecticut (USA)
Rome Observatory Italy
Rothney Astrophysical Observatory 1984 Priddis, Alberta (Canada)
Royal Observatory, Greenwich 1675 Greenwich, England
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh 1896 Edinburgh, Scotland
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory 1979 (officially inaugurated in 1985) La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain.
Rozhen Observatory 1981 Peak Rozhen, Bulgaria.



Stockholm Observatory

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Strasbourg Observatory

Name Established Location
Sayan Spectrographic Cosmic Ray Complex Irkutsk, Russia
SFA Observatory 1976 Nacogdoches, Texas (USA)
Shattuck Observatory 1854 Hanover, New Hampshire (USA)
Seven Hills Observatory 1996 Kearney, Nebraska, (USA)
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory 1958 Shamakhi, Azerbaijan
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory 1962 Shanghai, China
Shepherd Observatory 2008 (planned) Montevallo, Alabama (USA)
Sherzer Observatory 1878 Ypsilanti, Michigan (USA)
Sheshan Astronomical Observatory 1900 Shanghai, China
Siding Spring Observatory Siding Spring, New South Wales, Australia
Sierra Nevada Observatory 1874 Sierra Nevada, (Spain)
Simeiz Observatory Simeiz, Crimea, Ukraine
Sisk Observatory Mulberry, Kansas (USA)
Skalnaté Pleso Observatory 1953 Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia
Skylab 1973 low Earth orbit; re-entered in 1979
Smith Observatory 1880s Beloit, Wisconsin (USA)
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 1890 Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)
Sola Fide Observatory Austin, Minnesota (USA)
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) 1996 Earth-Sun L1 point
Solar Space Telescope 2009 709 km SSO; life: 3 years
Sommers-Bausch Observatory 1949 Boulder, Colorado (USA)
Sonnenborgh Observatory 1853 Utrecht, Netherlands
Sonoma State Observatory 1976 Rohnert Park, California (USA)
South African Astronomical Observatory
  • Cape Town
  • Sutherland
  • 1820
  • 1972
Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) 2004 Cerro Pachón (Chile)
Space Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope 2010 550 km LEO
Spanish National Observatory 1790 (Spain)
Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences Caucasus Mountains, Russia
Sperry Observatory 1967 Cranford, New Jersey (USA)
Spitzer Space Telescope 2003 Heliocentric orbit
Springwater Observatory 2005 Estacada, Oregon (USA)
Sproul Observatory Swarthmore, Pennsylvania (USA)
Stardome Observatory 1967 Auckland, North Island, New Zealand
Starkenburg Observatory 1970 Heppenheim, Germany
Štefánik's Observatory 1928 Prague, Czech Republic
Steward Observatory
1916 Tucson, Arizona, (USA)
Stjerneborg 1581 Hven, Sweden
Stockholm Observatory 1749 Stockholm, Sweden
Stokesville Observatory Virginia, (USA)
Strasbourg Observatory 1881 Strasbourg, France
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 2006 Boeing 747SP airliner
Stull Observatory 1966 Alfred, New York (USA)
Stuttgart Observatory 1920 Stuttgart, Germany
Submillimeter Array Mauna Kea,Hawaii (USA)
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 1999 Sudbury, Ontario, (Canada)
Sunriver Observatory Sunriver, Oregon (USA)
Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission 2004 Low Earth orbit
Sydney Observatory 1858 Sydney, Australia


Name Established Location
Table Mountain Observatory Angeles National Forest, Wrightwood, California (USA)
Tacubaya Observatory 1882 Tacubaya, Mexico City, Mexico
Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory 1986 Taejon, South Korea
Tamke-Allen Observatory 1998 Roane County, Tennessee (USA)
Tartu Observatory 1964 Tartumaa, Estonia
Teide Observatory 1964 Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Ten Acre Observatory Tribbey, Oklahoma (USA)
The Heights Observatory 1989 The Heights School, South Australia (Australia)
Texas A&M Astronomical Observatory College Station, Texas (USA)
Theodore Jacobsen Observatory 1895 Seattle, Washington, (USA)
Thompson Observatory 1968 Beloit, Wisconsin (USA)
Tien Shan Mountain Cosmic-Ray Station Almaty, Kazakhstan
Tuorla Observatory 1952 Piikkiö, Finland
Trieste Observatory Trieste, Italy
Turin Observatory 1759 Pino Torinese, Italy


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Name Established Location
Udaipur Solar Observatory Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
University of Alabama Observatory 1849 Tuscaloosa, Alabama (USA)
University of North Alabama Observatory Florence, Alabama (USA)
University of London Observatory 1929 London, England
University of Maryland Observatory College Park, Maryland (USA)
University of New Hampshire Observatory Durham, New Hampshire (USA)
University of Oklahoma Observatory Norman, Oklahoma (USA)
Uppsala Astronomical Observatory 1741 Uppsala, Sweden
Urania (Antwerp) Hove, Belgium
Urania (Berlin) Berlin, Germany
Urania (Vienna) 1909 Vienna, Austria
Urania Observatory (Zürich) 1907 Zürich, Switzerland
Uraniborg 1572 Hven, Sweden
Urumqi Astronomical Observatory 1957 Urumqi, Xinjiang, China
U.S. Naval Observatory 1842
  • 1955
Washington, D.C., (United States)
  • Flagstaff, Arizona, (USA)



Very Large Array Radio Observatory

Name Established Location
Valongo Observatory 1924 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Vainu Bappu Observatory Tamil Nadu, India
Van Vleck Observatory 1914 Middletown, Connecticut (USA)
Vanderbilt University Observatory Nashville, Tennessee (USA)
Vartiovuori Observatory (defunct) 1819–1834 Turku, Finland
Vassar College Observatory 1865 Poughkeepsie, New York (USA)
Vatican Observatory
  • Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope
  • 1993
Headquarters: Castel Gandolfo, Italy
  • Mount Graham, Arizona, USA
Veen Observatory 1970 Lowell, Michigan (USA)
Vega-Bray Observatory 1990 Benson, Arizona (USA)
Vernonia Peak Observatory Oregon, (USA)
Very Large Array 1980 Socorro, New Mexico (United States)
Very Long Baseline Array 1993 Various locations
Vienna Observatory 1753 Vienna, Austria
Vilnius University Observatory 1753 Vilnius University, Lithuania
Višnjan Observatory 1978 Višnjan, Croatia
Vsetín Observatory 1950 Vsetín, Czech Republic



Comet Hale-Bopp and Williams Observatory

Name Established Location
Warner Observatory 1882 Rochester, New York (USA)
Warner and Swasey Observatory 1919 Cleveland, Ohio (USA)
Warren Rupp Observatory 1985 Mansfield, Ohio (USA)
Washburn Observatory 1881 Madison, Wisconsin (United States)
Weaver Student Observatory Monterey, California (USA)
Weitkamp Observatory 1955 Westerville, Ohio (USA)
Whipple Observatory 1968 Mount Hopkins, Arizona, (USA)
Whitin Observatory 1901 Wellesley, Massachusetts (USA)
Widener University Observatory 2004 Chester, Pennsylvania (USA)
Wilder Observatory Amherst, Massachusetts (USA)
Williams Observatory 1990 Boiling Springs, North Carolina (USA)
Winer Observatory 1983 Sonoita, Arizona (USA)
Winfree Observatory 1900 Lynchburg, Virginia (USA)
Wise Observatory 1971 Negev, Israel
Witte Observatory 1984 Mediapolis, Iowa (USA)
WIYN Observatory 1994 Kitt Peak, Arizona (USA)


Name Established Location
Xiangfen Astronomical Observatory 2100 B.C. Xiangfen County, Linfen City, Shanxi Province, China
XMM-Newton 1999 Highly eccentric Earth orbit
Xujiahui Astronomical Observatory 1872 Shanghai, China


Name Established Location
Artic Space Weather Center Yakutsk, Russia
Yale Student Observatory New Haven, Connecticut (USA)
Yangbajing International Cosmic-Ray Observatory Yangbajing Valley, Tibet, China
Yantra Mandir 1724 New Delhi, Delhi, India
Yerevan Cosmic-Ray Station Yerevan, Armenia
Yerkes Observatory 1897 Williams Bay, Wisconsin (United States)
York University Observatory Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
Yunnan Astronomical Observatory 1957 Kunming, Yunnan, China


Name Established Location
Zimmerwald Observatory 1956 Zimmerwald, Switzerland


  1. Chaisson, Eric; McMillan, Steve (2002). Astronomy Today, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall. 

Εσωτερική Αρθρογραφία[]



Ikl.jpg Κίνδυνοι ΧρήσηςIkl.jpg

Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
σε αυτήν την εγκυκλοπαίδεια
ωστόσο, παρακαλούμε να λάβετε σοβαρά υπ' όψη ότι
η "Sciencepedia" δεν μπορεί να εγγυηθεί, από καμιά άποψη,
την εγκυρότητα των πληροφοριών που περιλαμβάνει.

"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
να έχουν αλλοιωθεί, βανδαλισθεί ή μεταβληθεί από κάποιο άτομο,
η άποψη του οποίου δεν συνάδει με το "επίπεδο γνώσης"
του ιδιαίτερου γνωστικού τομέα που σας ενδιαφέρει."

Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
όλα τα άρθρα μπορεί να είναι ακριβή, γενικώς,
και για μακρά χρονική περίοδο,
αλλά να υποστούν κάποιο βανδαλισμό ή ακατάλληλη επεξεργασία,
ελάχιστο χρονικό διάστημα, πριν τα δείτε.

Οι διάφοροι "Εξωτερικοί Σύνδεσμοι (Links)"
(όχι μόνον, της Sciencepedia
αλλά και κάθε διαδικτυακού ιστότοπου (ή αλλιώς site)),
αν και άκρως απαραίτητοι,
είναι αδύνατον να ελεγχθούν
(λόγω της ρευστής φύσης του Web),
και επομένως είναι ενδεχόμενο να οδηγήσουν
σε παραπλανητικό, κακόβουλο ή άσεμνο περιεχόμενο.
Ο αναγνώστης πρέπει να είναι
εξαιρετικά προσεκτικός όταν τους χρησιμοποιεί.

- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν


>>Διαμαρτυρία προς την wikia<<

- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)