Ακολουθούν οι ηγεμόνες της Ασσυρίας.
- 1 Αρχαία Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- 2 Παλαιά Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- 3 Μεσαία Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- 4 Νεότερη Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- 5 Εσωτερική Αρθρογραφία
- 6 Βιβλιογραφία
- 7 Ιστογραφία
Αρχαία Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
Tentile (Τεντόβιοι) (? - ?)
- Tudiya, Τυδεύς
- Around this time there is mentioned in a tablet from Ebla a certain Du-udia, ruler of Ashur. Are they one and the same?
- Adamu, Άδαμος
Akkadian (c. 2025 - c. 2000)
Ancestors (Πρόγονοι) (? - ?)
son of Apiashal
son of Hale
son of Samani
son of Hayani
son of Ilu-Mer
son of Yakmesi
son of Yakmeni
son of Yazkur-el
son of Ila-kabkaba
Sollids (Σολλίδες) (c. 2025 - c. 2000)
- Sulilu , son of Aminu, Σόλλος, c.2040
- Kikkiya, son of ?, Γυγαίος, c. 2000 - 1985
The first indepentent king of Ashur ?
- Akiya, son of ?, Άγις, c. 1985 - 1970
The first independent King of Ashur?
Puzirashrodis (Πυσιρασορίδες) (c. 2000 - c. 1830)
Beginning of the Assyrian independence
- Puzur-Ashur I, son of ?, Πυσιράσσωρ Α', c. 1970 - 1960
He was probably an Akkadian
- Shallum-ahhe, son of Pusur-Ashur I, Σαλλυμάχχης, c. 1960 - 1945
- Ilu-shumma, son of Shallim-ashe, Ιλόσυμμος, c. 1945 - 1906
He raided deep into Sumeria during the reign of Ishme-Dagan of Isin
Παλαιά Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- Erishum I, son of Ilushuma, Έρισος Α', c. 1906 - 1867
He left inscriptions mentioning the building of temples to Ashur, Ishtar, and Adad.
- Ikunum, son of Erishum I,Ίκυνος, c. 1867 - 1860
- Sharru-kin I = Sargon I , son of Ikunum, Σαργών Α', c. 1860 - 1850
- Pusur-Ashur II, son of Sharrukin I, Πυσιράσσωρ Β', c. 1850 - 1830
Εσνύννεια (c. 1830 - 1809)
- Naram-Sin, son of Pusur-Ashur II, Ναραψών, I of Esnynnia, c. 1830 - 1815
Περί το 1830 η Ασσυρία προσαρτήθηκε στο κράτος της Εσνύννειας από ( και υπό) τον βασιλέα της τελευταίας Naram-Sin.
- Erishum II, son of Naram-Sin, Έρισος Β', c. 1815 - 1809
He was overthrown by Shamshi-Adad.
Ammoritean (Αμορριτική) (1809 - 1700)
- Samshi-Adad I, son of Ila-Kabkabu, (king of Ekallatum), Σαμοσάδδης Α', 1809 - 1781
When Naram-Sin of Eshnunna conquered Assyria, he also captured Ekallatum and Shamshi-Adad fled to Babylon. When the time was right, he returned and retook his city (1815). Six years later he conquered Ashur. He waged a vigorous campaign of expansion. - He attacked and defeated the Sheikh of the Simalites (the father of Iahdun-Lim, the future king of Mari) and took land from Mari and Babylon. His empire included parts of the mountain region to the North, as well as Mari and Babylonian territory. - In 1796 he was able to install one of his sons as King of Mari. He took the title of "King of the Whole" and his reign was one of patriarchal absolutism. His kingdom has been called the First Assyrian Empire. The historian Georges Roux says that it more properly should be called ”the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia” because the men of Ashur played no part in it. He does figure in the Assyrian Kings List, but he was an usurper and was later rejected by Assyrian tradition. - He died in battle.
- Ishme-Dagan I, son of Samshi-Adad I, Ισμοδάγνης Α', 1780 - 1741
- He was defeated by Zimri-Lim of Mari and lost the overlordship of Syria.
- Elymaians sacked Ekallatum and Subat-Enlil (c. 1775 ?).
- Esnunnians occupied Ekallatum (c.1771).
- He invaded Babylonia, in alliance with Elam, Eshnunna, and the Gutians but was defeated by Hammurapi the Great.
- Later he became a vassal of Hammurapi of Babylon.
Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Ashur ending the first Assyrian empire (c. 1760 B.C.)?
- Mut-Ashkur, son of Ishme-Dagan I, Μυτάσκωρ, 1730 - 1720
- Rimush, son of ?, Ρίμος, c. 1720 - 1710
- Asinum, son of ?, grandson of Samshi-Adad I?
Άσινος, c. 1710 - 1706
7 usurpers, c. 1706 - 1700
- Sin-Namir, *Ipqi-Ishtar,
Adasids (Αδασίδες) (c. 1700 - c. 1014)
- Adasi, son of ?, Άδασις, c. 1700
- Belu-bani, son of Adasi, Βελύβανος, 1700 - 1691
- Libaia, son of Belu-bani, Λιβαίος, 1691 - 1674
Hurrian occupation (c.1680)
- Sharma-Adad I, (or Sharma-iskur I), son of Libaia, Σαρομάδδης Α', 1673 - 1662
- Ip-tar-Sin, son of Sharma-Adad I, Επτασίνης, c. 1662 - 1650
- Bazaya, son of Iptar-Sin, Βαζαίος, c. 1649 - 1622
- Lullaya, son of ?(no king), Λυλλαίος, c. 1621 - 1618
Possibly, he was an usurper
- Kidin-Ninua, (or Shu-Ninua), son of Bazaia,
Κύδνος, 1617 - 1602
- Sharma-Adad II, (or Sharma-iskur II), son of Kidin-Ninua, Σαρομάδδης Β', 1601 - 1598
- Erishum III, son of Sharma-Adad II, Έρισος Γ', c. 1598 - 1586
- Shamsi-Adad II , son of Erishum III, Σαμοσάδδης Β', c. 1585 - 1580
- Isme-Dagan II, son of Shamsi-Adad II,Ισμοδάγνης Β', c. 1580 - 1564
- Shamsi-Adad III, son of Isme-Dagan (no king)
(the bhr of Shamsi-Adad II), Σαμοσάδδης Γ', c. 1564 - 1547
- Ashur-nirari I, 2nd son of Isme-Dagan, (no king) (the bhr of Shamsi-Adad II), (bhr of Shamsi-Adad III), Ασσυρανίρρωρ Α', c. 1547 - 1522
- Puzur-Ashur III, son of Ashur-nirari I, Πυσιράσσωρ Γ', c. 1522 - 1498
He signed a peace treaty with Burnaburiash of Babylon and established the border at the Samarra area.
- Enlil-nasir I, son of Puzur-Ashur III, Ενυλλονάσωρ Α', 1498 - 1485?
He became a vassal of Mitannia
- Nur-ili, son of Enlil-nasir I, Νύριλος, 1485 - 1473
Probably, he was a vassal of Mitannia
- Ashur-shaduni, son of Nur-ili, Ασσυροσαδών, 1473
He reigned one month and then was overthrown by Ashur-Rabi
- Ashur-rabi I, son of Enlil-nasir I, Ασσυροράβης Α', 1473 - ?1450
He seized the throne in a coup. Probably,
- Ashur-nadin-ahhe I, son of Ashur-rabi I, Ασσυροναδάχχης Α', 1449 - 1430
Beginning with his reign, Assyria became a vassal of Mitanni. He was overthrown by his brother
- Enlil-nazir II, son of Ashur-rabi I, bhr of Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe I, Ενυλλονάσωρ Β', 1429 - 1424
He seized the throne in a coup. He became a vassal of Mitannia
Asraninorids (Ασρανινοροδίδες) (1423 - 1013)
- Ashur-nirari II, son of Enlil-nazir II, Ασσυρονίρρωρ Β',
1423 - 1417
He became a vassal of Mitannia
- Ashur-bel-nisheshu, son of Ashur-nirari II,
Ασσυροβελονίσσης , 1416 - 1409
A vassal of Mitanni. He signed a new treaty with Babylon that was similar to the previous one.
- Ashur-rim-nisheshu, son of Ashur-bel-nisheshu
Ασσυροριμνίσσης, 1408 - 1401
A vassal of Mitannia
- Ashur-nadin-ahhe II, son of Ashur-rim-nisheshu, Ασσυροναδάχχης Β', 1401 - 1392
A vassal of Mitanna Independent of Mitannia c.1400
- Eriba-Adad I, son of Ashur-bel-nisheshu, Εριβάδδης Α', 1390 - 1364
In alliance with the Hittites, he gained independence from Mitannia
Μεσαία Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
|Arik-den-ili 1319 – 1308
- Ashur-uballit I, ( = the god Assur has given)
son of Ashur-nadin-ahhe II, Ασσυροβάλλης Α', 1363 - 1328
- He extended Assyrian power westward Overthrow of Mitannia rule (c.1330) He was able to divide Mitanni between himself and the small state of Alshe (upper Tigris area). The Hurrite kingdom of Mitannia had to pay tribute (king Artatama) A part of Mitanni was occupied by the Hittite king Suppiluliuma; - He took the title of "Great King" and "King of the Universe" - He corresponded with Pharaoh Akhnaten (Amarna letters) and called himself "Brother of the Pharaoh". - He was related to the Kassite king Burnaburiash of Babylon. In 1333 the king of Babylon, who was Ashur-Ubbalit's grandson, was assassinated. In retaliation he invaded, intervened in the short civil war, overthrew Nazibugash and helped his grandson Kurigalzu II occupied the Babylonian throne. - He conquested upper Mesopotamia (c.1300)
- Enlil-nirari, son of Ashur-uballit I, Ενυλλονίρρωρ, 1327 - 1318
He was attacked by Kurigalzu of Babylon, most probably as a consequence of the assassination of Karahardash and the ensuing civil war. They eventually made peace.
- Arik-den-ili, son of Enlil-nirari, Αριγδενίλης, 1317 - 1306
He campaigned in the Zagros against the barbarians
- Adad-nirari I, son of Enlil-nirari, bhr of Arik-del-ili, Αρανίρρωρ Α', 1305 - 1274
He conquered, at least temporarily, northern Mesopotamia as far as Karkemish (Mittania falls to Assyria) - He fought successfully in Babylonia.
- Shulman-asharid I, ( = the god Salam,
or Shulmanu, is the first), son of Enlil-nirari, Σαλμανάσωρ Α', 1273 - 1244
- He conquered territory around Upper Euphrates in the east (the later Urartia) - He conquered in the west (up to the Euphrates, where he occupied the remains of the kingdom of Mitanni). - He wrote a letter to the Hittite King Tudhalias IV - He rebuilt the temple of Ishtar in Niniveh. He waged war with Elam.
- Tukulti-Ninurta I, son of Shulman-asharid I, Τυγλονίνωρ Α',
1243 - 1207
He corresponded with the Hittite King Τάνταλος Δ' (Tudhalias IV). He conquered Babylon, but only held it for seven years. Also, he builted a new capital, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta ( = Tulul el-Aqir), across the Tigris from Ashur. - He waged wars vs. Hittite & Aramaic kings of northern Syria; - "Muski" (Phrygians) invaded eastern Asia Minor - He conquered Susa - He was murdered by his son in a palace coup.
He waged very brutal warfare, including the deportation of conquered peoples in order to destroy their national consciousness. For a time he held parts of Syria, including Mari, and in 1225 he captured Babylon and its King. He installed puppet governors who were only able to rule for eight years. He built a new capital, Kar-Tukulti- Ninurta. Eventually his son and the nobles revolted. He was besieged in his palace and killed when it was set on fire. Assyrian power declined because of incursion by Arameans and the fall of the Hittites, which disrupted trade routes. Troubled by the Sea Peoples?
- Ashur-nadin-apli, son of Tukulti-Ninurta I,
Ασσυροναδίπαλος Α', 1206 - 1203
Assyrian power was weakened He revolted against his father and killed him. He in turn was possibly overthrown by Ashur-Nirari.
- Ashur-nirari III, son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ασσυρονίρρωρ Γ', 1202 - 1197
He probably was an usurper who seized power in a coup. He in turn was overthrown himself. Assyria resisted incursions by the Mushki and Urartu (c. 1200 B.C.)
- Enlil-kudurri-usur, son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ενυλλοκυδυρρώσωρ, 1196 - 1192
He seized the throne from the usurper, but was in turn overthrown by Ninurta-Apal-Ekur.
- Ninurta-apal-Ekur, son of Ilu-ihadda (no king), descendant of Eriba-Adad I, Νινοπλάκωρ, 1191 - 1179
He seized the thrown in a coup.
- Ashur-dan I, son of Ninurta-apal-Ekur
Ασσυραδών Α', 1178 - Elam captured Babylonia Assyria and Elam attack Babylonia ending Kassite rule (c. 1155 B.C.)
- Ninurta-tukulti-ashur, son of Ashur-dan I
Νινοτυγλάσσωρ Α', ? - ?
- Muttakil-nusku, son of Ashur-dan I, Μυττακίνης, - 1032
- Ashur-resh-ishi I, son of Muttakil-nusku, Ασσυρορέσσης Α',
1132 - 1115
Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon captures Elam
- Tukulti-apil-Esharra I, son of Ashur-resh-ishi I, Τυγλοπλάσωρ Α', (Τεγλάθ-Φαλασάρ Α΄), 1114 - 1076
In defending Assyria, he defeated Nebuchadnezzar In a series of campaigns, he conquered a large empire from the Zagros to the Mediterranean, and from Babylon north to Urartu. Towards the end of his realm he became king of Babylon.
Loss of Babylon and Susa; steady territorial loss to barbarians
- Asharid-apal-Ekur, son of Tukulti-apil-eharra I, Ασσυροπλάκωρ, 1075 - 1074
He limited to Nineveh,Irbil & Ashur province
- Ashur-bel-kala, son of Tukulti-apil-eharra I
Ασσυροβελοκάλης, 1073 - 1056
- Samshi-Adad IV, son of Tukulti-apil-Esharra I
Σαμοσάδδης Δ', 1053 - 1050
- Ashur-nasir-pal I, son of Ashur-bel-kala, Ασσυρονασιράπαλος Α', 1049 - 1032
- Shulman-asharid II, son of Ashur-nasir-pal I, Σαλμανάσωρ Β', 1031 - 1020
- Ashur-nirari IV, son of Shulman-asharid II,
Ασσυρονίρρωρ Δ', 1019 - 1014
Ashrabids (Ασραβίδες) (1013 - 745) Kings (Βασιλείς)
- Ashur-rabi II, son of Ashur-nasir-pal I,
Ασσυράβης Β', 1013 - 973
Isreal & Judah under David & Solomon Urartuans overran much of Assyria (c. 1000 B.C.)
- Ashur-resh-ishi II, son of Ashur-rabi II,
Ασσυρορέσσης Β', 972 - 967
- Tukulti-apil-Esharra II, son of Ashur-resh-ishi II Τυγλοπλάσωρ Β', (Τεγλάθ-φαλασάρ Β΄) 966 - 935
He captured Babylonia, Anatolia, & Syrian plain
- Ashur-dan II, son of Tukulti-apil-Esharra II, Ασσυραδών Β', 934 - 912
He built up a new Assyrian Empire ( He established order and traditional boundaries, economic revival ) Assyria reclaims lands lost to the Urartian invasion (934-859 B.C.)
Νεότερη Ασσυριακή Περίοδος
- Adad-nirari II, son of Ashur-dan II, Αδανίρρωρ Β', 911 - 891
He fought in the west against the Arameans, (six campaigns against Arameans on upper Euphrates) He fought in the north against the Nairia He fought in the south against Babylonia. He siege of Nisibin (896)
- Tukulti-Ninurta II, son of Adad-nirari II,
Τυγλονίνωρ Β', 891 - 883
He campaigned in the north. He pushed boundary with Babylon ( Peace with Babylon, no tributes required). Tribute of thousands of horses. First large-scale use of cavalry.
- Ashur-nasir-pal II , son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, Ασσυρονασιράπαλος Β', 883 - 859
Revolt of Ameka and Arashtua (880) He moves the Assyrian capital to Calah (Nimurd) (c. 880 B.C.) - He fought against southern Anatolia (He accessed iron sources from Taurus mountains) - He fought against the mountain peoples of the Zagros, Kurdistan, and northern Mesopotamia. - He fought against against the Arameans in Central Mesopotamia He campained in territories of Upper Euphrates - He also held campaigns to the west; he reached the Mediterranean coast. (He fought Carchemish to north Syrian coast) So, Assyrian empire reaches Mediterranean Sea (shortly after 870) He received tribute to Tyre He allied with Medes - In his reign the Assyrians again ruled from the Tigris to the Mediterranean, and from Lake Van to the borders of Babylonia.
- Shulman-asharid III , son of Ashur-nasir-pal II, Σαλμανάσωρ Γ',
858 - 824
- He began integrating conquered areas into the empire as provinces. Vassals, who could not yet be wholly subjugated, paid tribute. - Ηe moved west to conquer the Aramean kingdoms of Syria. extended his kingdom up to the Euphrates. He held campaigns in Urartia “washing his weapons” in Lake Van. (he defeated the first known king of Urartu, Aramu (856 B.C.)) - He crossed the Euphrates 25 times with his army. - He campained in southern Anatolia (he penetrated into Kizzuwatna (Cilicia)). - He campained in Syria, απειλώντας και ξητώντας φόρους από τις πόλεις της Βόρειας Συρίας, της Παλαιστίνης και της Φοινίκης. He ran into a Syrian-Palestinian coalition which included
Ahab of Israel , Adad-Intri of Damascus and the ruler of Hamath,
with whom he fought the battle of Karkar of Orontes river (853). Η μάχη έληξε άκριτη και οι Ασσύριοι αναγκάσθηκαν να αποσυρθούν. Ο Σαλμανάσωρ Γ΄ εκστράτευσε άλλες δύο φορές χωρίς και πάλι ιδιαίτερη επιτυχία (849, 846) Eventually, he captured Damascus (842) and received tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Israel. - He campained in Babylonia, defeated Haldeans & Aramean Bit-Zakin, in Persian coast. - Great Revolt (837)
- Samshi-Adad V, son of Shulman-asharid III
Σαμοσάδδης Ε', 823 - 811
He took the throne after defeating his brother, though parts of the empire were lost. In order to quell the rebellion caused by his elder son, Asshur-Danin-Pal,
he undertook four campaigns.
He also fought and defeated the Babylonian king, Marduk-balatsu-iqbi, and his powerful army.
- Adad-nirari III, second son of Samshi-Adad V
Αδδανίρρωρ Γ', 810 - 783
during the first five years of his reign (810 – 806) his mother Sammu-ramat (= Semiramis) ruled as regent. Assyrian rule weakened and πολλοί Ασσύριοι έπαρχοι (όπως ο δοικητής της Μάριδας) στασίασαν. - He campaigned in Syria and Phoenicia. - He briefly re-imposed tribute (presents)on the western states, including Israel (from king Joas of Israel), - Later increasingly, Assyria retreated before Urartia. Commagene and Melitene, in southern Anatolia, and Carchemish, in Northern Syria, came under Urartian control and Assyria became practically a vassal of Urartia
- Shulman-asharid IV, son of Adad-nirari III, Σαλμανάσωρ Δ',
783 - 772
Assyrian incursions of Phoenicia begin (774 B.C.)
- Ashur-dan III, son of Adad-nirari III, Ασσυραδών Γ',
772 - 755
Rebelions against Assyria
- Ashur-nirari V, son of Adad-nirari III,
Ασσυρονίρρωρ Ε', 754 - 745
A revolt (746) in Assyria led to the murder of the royal family and brought to the throne Tukulti-apil-Esharra III, the youngest son of Ashur-nirari V.
- Tukulti-apil-Esharra III, ( = helper of the son of Esharra i.e. the god Ninurta),
youngest son of Ashur-nirari V, Τυγλοπλάσωρ Γ', (Τεγλάθ-φαλασάρ Γ΄), ( = Tiglath-Pileser III), 744 - 727
He introduced the last and greatest period of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He re-gained Assyrian might greater than before - The first task of Tiglath-Pileser was to reduce the Aramaean tribes to border, and so win the gratitude of the Babylonian priesthood - Then, he struck terror into the wild tribes on the eastern frontiers of the kingdom by a campaign which extended into the remotest parts of Media. - He held campaigns to Syria and Palestine (743-740, 738, 734-732), - Next, he defeated the Urartians (under king Sanduris) and their Neo-Hittite allies at Arpad where the Assyrian king received the homage of various Syrian princes. - Arpad revolted soon afterwards, but after a siege was taken (740). - Azariah of Judah appeared among the enemies of Tiglath-Pileser, who had overthrown his Hamathite allies and annexed the nineteen districts of Hamath (739) The conquered populations were now transported to distant parts of the Empire. - He invaded Phoenicia (738) - He again marched into Media ( 737) - Assyrians begin incursions into Urartia (735 B.C.) He defeated the Urartians again and annexed the region around Lake Urmia. - He was called for help (734) of Yahu-khazi (Ahaz) of Judah, (who had been attacked by Pekah of Israel and Rezon (Rasun) of Damascus). Rezon, was defeated in battle, fled to his capital which was at once invested by the Assyrians, while with another portion of’ his army, Tiglath-Pileser, ravaged Syria and overran the kingdom of Samaria. Ammon, Moab, Edom and the queen of Sheba sent tribute, and Teima, in northern Arabia was captured by the Assyrian troops. - Επέμβαση στην Φιλισταία (734). - Στην Ισραηλία ευνόησε την άνοδο τον θρόνο του Οζία - Tyre falled to him (734) and was made tributary. - He subdued Damascus (732) in Syria and annexed the Israelite provinces of Gilead and Galilee (Rezon was put to death, and an Assyrian satrap appointed in his’ stead). - In 731, a revolt broke out in Babylonia. He entered Babylonia (731). He fought against the Chaldeans in Babylon but it was not until 729 that the Chaldaean prince Ukin-zer (Chinzirus) was driven from Babylon and Tiglath-Pileser acknowledged as its legitimate ruler. He became king of Babylon towards the end of his realm (728-727). - In the early part of 727 B.C. he died, after having built two palaces, one at Nineveh, the other at Calah.
Sargonids (Σαργονίδες) (722 – 609)
- Shulman-asharid V, son of ?, Tukulti-apil-eshara III , Σαλμανάσωρ Ε', 726 - 722
Upon taking the throne, Shalmeneser V (726–722) was immediately faced with a new rebellion in the west. Η Ισραηλία (υπό τον βασιλέα Οζία) διαπραγματευόταν με την Αίγυπτο. Both Tyre and Samaria, the capital of Israel, were besieged. Samaria fell late in 722 after a three-year siege (shortly before the death of Shalmeneser), but Tyre held out. He captured Samaria, deported Isrealites
- Sarru-kin II, (or Sargon II) son of Tukulti-apil-esharra III , Σαργών Β', 722 - 705
He re-organized the Assyrian empire into 70 provinces (c. 722 B.C.) When Sargon II (721–705) mounted the throne, another revolt broke out in Babylon under Merodach-Baladan II, which Sargon failed to quell initially. - He completed Shalmaneser’s siege of Samaria, the capital of Israel, capturing the city ( 721), thus destroying the northern Israelite kingdom forever (721) and assimilated Israel into empire (721). He deported 28,000 Israelites who became the "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel" (721 B.C.) - He was defeated by Humban-Nikash of Elam at the battle of Der (721 B.C.) - In 720, Sargon moved west, reconquering Hamath, Samaria, Ekron, and Gaza.
Ahaz of Judah paid tribute and Tyre finally capitulated after a five-year siege
- He defeated Egyptians and his coalition at Raphia (720) the farthest west the Assyrians had yet penetrated - He took and annexed Carchemish. (717-716). - He defeated a Urartian army under Rusa I (714 B.C.) - He took Ashdod and annexed Philistia (712). - Phrygia became a tributary to Assyria (709 B.C.) Finally, in 709, the revolt in Babylon was suppressed, and
Merodach-Baladan went into exile in Elam.
He advanced eastward to Kurdistan.. - He moved the Assyrian capital to Dur-Sharrukin ( = mdr.Khorsabad) (705).
- Sin-ahhe-eriba, ( = Sin, replace
the [deceased] brothers), son of Sharrukin II Σιναχχερίβης , 705 - 681
Assyria attacks Jerusalem (701 B.C.) Assyrians invade and conquer most of Phoenicia (701 B.C.) Ηε sieged Lachish (701) He moves the Assyrian capital to Nineveh (c. 700 B.C.) He faught rebellions He destroyed Babylon (689 B.C.). His army was destroyed in a mysterious disaster. He was murdered during a revolt (by his son Arda-Mulish).
In 703 Merodach-Baladan II again seized power in Babylon, and though Sennacherib quickly put down the revolt, resistance continued for the next 13 years. Sennacherib campaigned to the north, taking tribute from the Medes, then west, defeating the Egyptians at the Battle of Elteqeh in 701. Next it was Judah's turn and Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem. But when King Hezekiah paid tribute, the Assyrians broke off the siege (See 715–640). In 689, Babylon revolted again, with Elamite assistance, but was sacked and burnt to the ground. Sennacherib transformed Nineveh, on the east bank of the Tigris, into a city of unparalleled splendor, and it remained the Assyrian capital until the end of the empire. In the 7th century, the population of Mesopotamia reached a height (until modern times) of around 2 million inhabitants. Sennacherib's eldest son had died before him, so he designated his youngest son Esarhaddon as heir. This led to a revolt by his older sons, and the king's assassination
- Ashur-ahhe-iddin, son of Sin-ahhe-eriba, Ασσυραχχιδών ,
(Εσαρχαδδών), 681 - 669
- With the active assistance of his mother, Naqia (= Nitocris),
Esarhaddon put down the revolt by his brothers.
- He rebuilt Babylon and appointed his oldest son Shamash-shum-ukin its king and he gave the title “king of Assyria” to Ashurbanipal, his youngest son. - He fought Scythians and Cimmerians who appeared on Assyria's northern border - While Scythian and Cimmerian tribes, Esarhaddon was preoccupied with plans to conquer Egypt. The first Assyrian invasion of Egypt (674–673) was unsuccessful. Esarhaddon struck with full force, routed the Pharaoh Taharka, and took Memphis (671) - He captured Sidon (677), in Phoenicia. - He defeated the Ethiopian pharaoh Taharqa, Manasseh of Judah, Edom and Moab and captured Mephis (671). (Assyrian rule in Egypt (671-651)) - He again went to Egypt, to prepare for an invasion of Ethiopia, but he fell sick and died (669).
- Ashur-ban-apli, son of Ashur-ahhe-iddin, Ασσυροβανάπαλος, (Σαρδανάπαλος), 669 - 631
- He attacked Egypt and, in two campaigns (667–666 and 664–663), defeated pharaoh Taharka and his son Tenuatamun.
He conquered Thebes in Southern Egypt (664) (but, in 654, Egypt was free again). Kushites driven from Egypt by the Assyrians (654). Elam became an Assyrian vassal (653) He defeated Lydia In 652, Shamash-shuma-ukin, the king of Babylonia, tried to overthrow his brother with Elamite help, and civil war raged until 648, when Shamash-shuma-ukin finally surrendered in Babylon and was killed in 652. Susa was taken and sacked in 639. Ashur-Bani-Pal had twin sons. Ashur-Etil-Ilani was appointed successor to the throne, but his twin brother Sin-Shar-Ishkun did not recognize him. The fight between them and their supporters forced the old king to withdraw to Harran, in 632 at the latest, perhaps ruling from there over the western part of the empire until his death in 627.
- Ashur-etel-ilani, son of Ashur-banipal, Ασσυροθελλών, 631 - 629
Ashur-Etil-Ilani governed in Assyria from about 633, but a general, Sin-Shum-Lisher, soon rebelled against him and proclaimed himself counter-king. Some years later Sin-Shar-Ishkun finally succeeded in obtaining the kingship. Babylonians attack Assyria
- Sin-shar-ishkun, son of Ashur-banipal, Σινοσαρισκών, (Σάρακος), 629 - 612
He took back the throne of Assyria and stabilized the internal situation - The Chaldean Nabopolassar (Nabu-apal-usur) revolted from Uruk and occupied Babylon (626). - The Scythians laid waste to Syria and Palestine (626). - The Medes under Cyaxares began to conquer the Iranian provinces of Assyria (625) One chronicle relates of wars between Sin-Shar-Ishkun and Nabopolassar in Babylonia in 625-623. It was not long until the Assyrians were driven out of Babylonia. - In 616 the Medes struck against Nineveh but were driven back by the Scythians. ( according to Herodotus). - The Medes conquered Arrapkha ( = mdr. Kirkuk) ( 615) and they took the old capital of Ashur, looting and destroying the city (614) - Cyaxares and Nabopolassar made an alliance for the purpose of dividing Assyria. - Kalakh and Nineveh was sacked and completely destroyed.(612). - Sin-shar-ishkun found death in his burning palace
- Ashur-uballit II, son of ?, Ασσυροβάλλης Β', 612 - 609
- Babylonians (by Nabopolassar) march to Upper Euphrates (summer 610). Junctioned with Medians and advanced on Harran. Assur-uballit and Egyptian army abandoned city, fleed west of Euphrates and retreat to Syria. Babylonians and Medes occupied Harran. Nabopolassar leaves garrison and returns hom (winter 610).
- Assur-uballit and egyptian army advanced on and sieged Harran (spring 609). Egyptians (by Menkheperre = Neco) marched to Damascus (spring 609). Final assault on Harran repulsed. Babylonian army arrived to relieve garrison. Assyro-Egyptian siege of Harran ended on approach of Nabopolassar (summer 609)
Κατάκτηση Ασσυρίας από Μήδους (609)
Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν
- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)