Science Wiki

Βραβεία Nobel Φυσικής

Nobel Physics Prices

Nobel laureates

Nobel Price

Στον παρακάτω πίνακα αναφέρονται, ανά δεκαετία, όσοι επιστήμονες έλαβαν βραβείο Nobel Φυσικής καθώς και η αιτιολογία της απονομής.

Δεκαετία 1900[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1900 - - -
1901 Rontgen Wilhelm-Conrad Γερμανία "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable Röntgen rays (or x-rays)

«για την ανακάλυψη των ακτίνων Χ»

1902 Lorentz Hendrik-Antoon (The Netherlands)
Zeeman Pieter
Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena". ( Zeeman effect)

«για τις έρευνές τους περί την επιρροή του Μαγνητισμού σε φαινόμενα ακτινοβολίας» (Φαινόμενο Ζέεμαν)

1903 Becquerel Antoine-Henri "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

«για την ανακάλυψη της αυθόρμητης Ραδιενέργειας»

Curie Pierre (France)
Curie Maria Sklodowska
Poland/France "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

«για τις έρευνές τους πάνω στα φαινόμενα ακτινοβολίας της αυθόρμητης Ραδιενέργειας»

1904 Rayleigh John (Strutt John-William, 3rd Baron Rayleigh) UK "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

«για τις έρευνές του πάνω στις πυκνότητες των πιο σημαντικών αερίων και για την ανακάλυψη του αργού σε συσχέτιση με τις παραπάνω μελέτες»[

1905 von Lenard Phillip Eduard Anton Germany "for his work on cathode rays"

«για τις εργασίες του επί των καθοδικών ακτίνων»

1906 Sir Thomson Joseph John "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

«ως αναγνώριση για τη συμβολή του στις θεωρητικές και πειραματικές εργασίες επί της ηλεκτρικής αγωγιμότητας των αερίων»

1907 Michelson Albert Abraham "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid". (Michelson-Morley experiment).

«για τις οπτικές συσκευές ακριβείας (που κατασκεύασε) και τις εργασίες στη Φασματοσκοπία που ακολούθησαν με τη βοήθειά τους» (Πείραμα Michelson-Morley).

1908 Lippmann Gabriel "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

«για την μέθοδο της αναπαραγωγής χρωμάτων φωτογραφικά, βασισμένη στο φαινόμενο της συμβολής»

1909 Marconi Guglielmo
Braun Karl Ferdinand
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

«για τη συμβολή τους στην ανάπτυξη της Ασύρματης Τηλεγραφίας»

Δεκαετία 1910[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1910 Van der Waals Johannes Diderik The Netherlands "For his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids." Βλέπε: Van der Waals force
1911 Wien Wilhelm "For his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat." Βλέπε: Wien law
1912 Dalen Niels Gustaf "For his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys."
1913 Kamerlingh-Onnes Heike Netherlands "For his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
1914 von Laue Max "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals."
1915 Sir Bragg William-Henry
Bragg William-Lawrence
"For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays."
1916 - - (The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.)
1917 Barkla Charles Glover "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements."
1918 Planck Max "In recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta."
1919 Stark Johannes "For his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields." See: Stark effect

Δεκαετία 1920[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1920 Guillaume Charles Edouard "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
1921 Einstein Albert Germany /US "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his explanation of the photoelectric effect"
1922 Bohr Niels Henrik David Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
1923 Millikan Robert Andrews US "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
1924 Siegbahn Manne Karl Georg "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
1925 Franck James
Hertz Gustav Ludwig
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
1926 Perrin Jean Baptiste "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
1927 Compton Arthur Holly US "for his discovery of the Compton Effect, named after him".
Wilson Charles Thomson Rees Scotland "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour". See: Cloud chamber
1928 Richardson Owen-Willans "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
1929 De Broglie Louis Victor Pierre Raymond France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" (De Broglie hypothesis)

Δεκαετία 1930[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1930 Raman Chandrasekhara Venkata India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
1931 - - (The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.)
1932 Heisenberg Werner Karl Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
1933 Schrodinger Erwin

Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice

Germany - UK "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
1934 - - (The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.)
1935 Chadwick James UK "for the discovery of the neutron"
1936 Hess Victor Franz "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
Anderson Carl David US "for his discovery of the positron"
1937 Davisson Clinton Joseph
Thomson George Paget
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals". See: wave-particle duality
1938 Fermi Enrico Italy & US "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
1939 Lawrence Ernest Orlando US "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

Δεκαετία 1940[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1940 - - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1941 - - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1942 - - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1943 Stern Otto "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
1944 Rabi Isidor Isaac "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
1945 Pauli Wolfgang Ernst "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"
1946 Bridgman Percy Williams "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"
1947 Appleton Edward Victor "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
1948 Blackett Patrick Maynard Stuart "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
1949 Yukawa Hideki "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces". Βλέπε: Yukawa potential

Δεκαετία 1950[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1950 Powell Cecil Frank "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
1951 Cockcroft John Douglas
Walton Ernest Thomas Sinton
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
1952 Bloch Felix
Purcell Edward Mills
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
1953 Zernike Frits (Frederik) ( Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
1954 Born Max "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
Bothe Walther "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
1955 Lamb Willis Eugene "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum". (Lamb shift)
Kusch Polykarp "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
1956 Shockley William Bradford
Bardeen John
Brattain Walter Houser
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
1957 Yang Chen-Ning
Lee Tsung-Dao
China & US "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
1958 Cherenkov Pavel Alekseyevich
Frank Ilya
Tamm Igor Yevgenyevich
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect"
1959 Serge Emilio Gino
Chamberlain Owen
"for their discovery of the antiproton"

Δεκαετία 1960[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1960 Donald Arthur Glaser "for the invention of the bubble chamber"
1961 Hofstadter Robert "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Mossbauer Rudolf Ludwig (Mössbauer) "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name". See:Mossbauer effect
1962 Landau Lev Davidovich Russia "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
1963 Wigner Eugene Paul "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Goeppert-Mayer Maria
Jensen J. Hans D.
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
1964 Townes Charles Hard
Basov Nicolay Gennadiyevich
Aleksandr Prokhorov
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
1965 Tomonaga Sin-Itiro (Japan)
Schwinger Julian (US)
Feynman Richard P. (US)
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
1966 Kastler Alfred Kastler "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
1967 Bethe Hans Albrecht Germany & US "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
1968 Alvarez Luis Walter "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
1969 Gell-Mann Murray US "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions". See: Eightfold way

Δεκαετία 1970[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1970 Alfven Hannes Olof Gösta for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of Plasma Physics
Neel Louis Eugene Félix for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics
1971 Gabor Dennis Gabor for his invention and development of the holographic method
1972 Bardeen John
Cooper Leon Neil
Schrieffer John Robert
for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory
1973 Esaki Leo
Giaever Ivar
(Japan & US) - ? "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Josephson Brian David for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect
1974 Ryle Martin
Hewish Antony
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
1975 Bohr Aage Aage Niels (Denmark)
Mottelson Ben Roy
Rainwater Leo James
for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection
1976 Richter Burton Richter
Ting Samuel Chao Chung
for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind". In other words: for discovery of the J/Ψ particle as it confirmed the idea that baryonic matter (such as the nuclei of atoms) is made out of quarks.
1977 Anderson Philip Warren
Mott Nevill Francis
van Vleck John Hasbrouck
for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
1978 Kapitsa Pyotr Leonidovich for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics
Penzias Arno Allan
Wilson Robert-Woodrow
for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation
1979 Glashow Sheldon Lee
Salam Abdus (Pakistan)
Weinberg Steven
US - US for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current

Δεκαετία 1980[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1980 Cronin James Watson
Fitch Val Logsdon
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons". See: CP-violation
1981 Bloembergen Nicolaas (The Netherlands)
Schawlow Arthur Leonard
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Siegbahn Karl-Manne Börje "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
1982 Wilson Kenneth G. "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
1983 Chandrasekhar Subrahmanyan "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". See Chandrasekhar limit
Fowler William Alfred "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the Universe"
1984 Rubbia Carlo
van der Meer Simon
The Netherlands "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
1985 von Klitzing Klaus "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
1986 Ruska Ernst "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Binnig Gerd
Rohrer Heinrich
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
1987 Bednorz Johannes Georg
Muller Karl Alexander
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
1988 Lederman Leon Max
Schwartz Melvin
Steinberger Jack
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
1989 Ramsay Norman Foster "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Dehmelt Hans Georg
Pauli Wolfgang Paul
"for the development of the ion trap technique"

Δεκαετία 1990[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
1990 Friedman Jerome Isaac
Kendall Henry Way
Taylor Richard Edward
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
1991 Gennes Pierre-Gilles "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
1992 Charpak Georges France "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
1993 Hulse Russell Alan
Taylor Joseph Hooton Junior
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
1994 Brockhouse Bertram Neville "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
Shull Clifford Glenwood "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"

1995 Perl Martin Lewis "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
Reines Frederick "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
1996 Lee David Morris
Osheroff Douglas Dean
Richardson Robert Robert Coleman
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
1997 Chu Steven (China & US)
Tannoudji Claude (Cohen-Tannoudji) (France), and Phillips William Daniel
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
1998 Laughlin Robert B.
Stormer Horst Ludwig
Tsui Daniel Chee
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" (Quantum Hall effect)
1999 Hooft Gerard ('t Hooft)
Veltman Martin J.G.
Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Δεκαετία 2000[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
Alferov Zhores Ivanovich
Kroemer Herbert
- "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and Optoelectronics"
Kilby Jack St. Clair US "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
2001 Cornell Eric Allin
Ketterle Wolfgang
Wieman Carl Edwin
- "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
2002 Davis Raymond Junior
Koshiba Masatoshi (Japan)
- "for pioneering contributions to Astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Giacconi Riccardo - "for pioneering contributions to Astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
2003 Abrikosov Alexei Alexeyevich
Ginzburg Vitaly Lazarevich
Leggett Anthony James
- "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
2004 Gross David J.
Politzer David H.
Wilczek Frank
- "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
2005 Glauber Roy J. - "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
Hall John Lewis "Jan"
Hansch Theodor W.
- "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
2006 Mather John C. United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation"[1]
Smoot George F. United States
2007 Fert Albert France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[2]
Grunberg Peter Germany
2008 Kobayashi Makoto Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in Nature"[3]
Maskawa Toshihide Japan
Nambu Yoichiro United States for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in Subatomic Physics"[3]
2009 Kao Charles K. Japan for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication
Boyle Willard S. Japan
Geim Andre United States for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit (the CCD sensor)

Δεκαετία 2010[]

Χρονολογία Όνομα Χώρα Επιστημονική Προσφορά
2010 Geim Andre ? for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
Novoselov Konstantin ? for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
2011 Perlmutter Saul ? for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
Schmidt Brian P. ? for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
Riess Adam G. ? for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
2012 Haroche Serge - ?
Wineland David J. ? ?
2013 [[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2014 [[]] - ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2015 [[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2016 [[]] - ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2017 [[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2018 [[]] - ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
2019 [[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?
[[]] ? ?

Εσωτερική Αρθρογραφία[]



Ikl.jpg Κίνδυνοι ΧρήσηςIkl.jpg

Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
σε αυτήν την εγκυκλοπαίδεια
ωστόσο, παρακαλούμε να λάβετε σοβαρά υπ' όψη ότι
η "Sciencepedia" δεν μπορεί να εγγυηθεί, από καμιά άποψη,
την εγκυρότητα των πληροφοριών που περιλαμβάνει.

"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
να έχουν αλλοιωθεί, βανδαλισθεί ή μεταβληθεί από κάποιο άτομο,
η άποψη του οποίου δεν συνάδει με το "επίπεδο γνώσης"
του ιδιαίτερου γνωστικού τομέα που σας ενδιαφέρει."

Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
όλα τα άρθρα μπορεί να είναι ακριβή, γενικώς,
και για μακρά χρονική περίοδο,
αλλά να υποστούν κάποιο βανδαλισμό ή ακατάλληλη επεξεργασία,
ελάχιστο χρονικό διάστημα, πριν τα δείτε.

Οι διάφοροι "Εξωτερικοί Σύνδεσμοι (Links)"
(όχι μόνον, της Sciencepedia
αλλά και κάθε διαδικτυακού ιστότοπου (ή αλλιώς site)),
αν και άκρως απαραίτητοι,
είναι αδύνατον να ελεγχθούν
(λόγω της ρευστής φύσης του Web),
και επομένως είναι ενδεχόμενο να οδηγήσουν
σε παραπλανητικό, κακόβουλο ή άσεμνο περιεχόμενο.
Ο αναγνώστης πρέπει να είναι
εξαιρετικά προσεκτικός όταν τους χρησιμοποιεί.

- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν


>>Διαμαρτυρία προς την wikia<<

- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)

  1. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006. Nobel Foundation. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-09. 
  2. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Nobel Foundation. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-09. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 /2008/index.html The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008. Nobel Foundation. /2008/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-09.