Βραβεία Nobel Χημείας

[1]


βραβείο Nobel.

Ακολουθεί κατάλογος βραβευθέντων χημικών.

Κατάλογος[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Year Χημικός Χώρα Αιτιολογία
1901 75px Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff the Netherlands "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[1]
1902 - Hermann Emil Fischer Germany "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[2]
1903 - Svante August Arrhenius Svante Sweden "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[3]
1904 - Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[4]
1905 - Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[5]
1906 Henri Moissan France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[6]
1907 - Eduard Buchner Germany "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[7]
1908 - Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom
New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[8]
1909 - Wilhelm Ostwald Germany "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[9]
1910 - Otto Wallach Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[10]
1911 - Marie Curie, France "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[11]
1912 - Victor Grignard France "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[12]
- Paul Sabatier France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[12]
1913 - Alfred Werner Switzerland "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[13]
1914 - Theodore William Richards United States "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[14]
1915 - Richard Martin Willstätter Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[15]
1916 Not awarded
1917 Not awarded
1918 - Fritz Haber Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[16]
1919 Not awarded
1920 - Walther Hermann Nernst Germany "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[17]
1921 - Frederick Soddy United Kingdom "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[18]
1922 - Francis William Aston United Kingdom "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[19]
1923 75px Fritz Pregl Austria "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[20]
1924 Not awarded
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[21]
1926 Theodor Svedberg Sweden "for his work on disperse systems"[22]
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[23]
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[24]
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[25]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Germany
1930 Hans Fischer Germany "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[26]
1931 - Carl Bosch Germany "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[27]
Friedrich Bergius Friedrich Bergius Germany
1932 75px Irving Langmuir United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[28]
1933 Not awarded
1934 75px Harold Clayton Urey United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[29]
1935 Frédéric Joliot France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[30]
Irene Joliot-Curie Irene Joliot-Curie France
1936 75px Peter Josephus Wilhelmus Debye the Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[31]
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[32]
Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[33]
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany "for his work on sex hormones"[34]
Lavoslav Leopold Ruzicka Switzerland "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[34]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 75px George de Hevesy Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[35]
1944 Otto Hahn Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[36]
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[37]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[38]
John Howard Northrop United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[39]
Wendell Meredith Stanley Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[40]
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[41]
1949 William Francis Giauque United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[42]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[43]
Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[44]
Glenn Theodore Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography"[45]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[46]
1954 75px Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[47]
1955 75px Vincent du Vigneaud United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[48]
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[49]
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov USSR
1957 Baron Lord Alexander R. Todd United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[50]
1958 75px Frederick Sanger United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[51]
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[52]
1960 Willard Frank Libby United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[53]
1961 75px Melvin Calvin United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[54]
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[55]
John Cowdery Kendrew John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[56]
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 75px Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[57]
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[58]
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[59]
1967 Manfred Eigen Federal Republic of Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[60]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[61]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[62]
Odd Hassel Norway
1970 75px Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[63]
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[64]
1972 75px Christian B. Anfinsen United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[65]
Stanford Moore United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[65]
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Federal Republic of Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[66]
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul J. Flory United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[67]
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[68]
Vladimir Prelog Switzerland "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[68]
1976 William N. Lipscomb United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[69]
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[70]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[71]
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[72]
Georg Wittig Federal Republic of Germany
1980 75px Paul Berg United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[73]
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[73]
Frederick Sanger Frederick Sanger United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[74]
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[75]
1983 Henry Taube United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[76]
1984 75px Robert Bruce Merrifield United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[77]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[78]
Jerome Karle United States
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach Dudley R. Herschbach United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[79]
Yuan T. Lee United States
John C. Polanyi Canada
1987 Donald J. Cram United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[80]
Jean-Marie Lehn Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Federal Republic of Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[81]
Robert Huber Robert Huber Federal Republic of Germany
Hartmut Michel Federal Republic of Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[82]
Thomas R. Cech Thomas R. Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[83]
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[84]
1992 75px Rudolph A. Marcus United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[85]
1993 Kary B. Mullis United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"[86]
Michael Smith Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[86]
1994 George A. Olah United States "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[87]
1995 Paul J. Crutzen Paul J. Crutzen the Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[88]
Mario J. Molina Mario J. Molina United States
75px F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. United States "for their discovery of fullerenes"[89]
Harold Kroto Sir Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[90]
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[90]
1998 Walter Kohn United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[91]
John A. Pople United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[91]
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt
United States
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[92]
2000 Alan J. Heeger United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[93]
Alan G MacDiarmid United States
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[94]
Ryoji Noyori Ryoji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[95]
2002 John B. Fenn John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[96]
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[96]
2003 Peter Agre United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[97]
Roderick MacKinnon Roderick MacKinnon United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[97]
2004 75px Aaron Ciechanover Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[98]
75px Avram Hershko Israel
75px Irwin Rose United States
2005 Yves Chauvin France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[99]
Robert Grubbs Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States
2006 75px Roger D. Kornberg United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[100]
2007 75px Gerhard Ertl Germany "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[101]
2008 Osamu Shimomura United States[102] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[103]
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States

Υποσημειώσεις[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1901/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  2. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1902/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  3. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1903/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  4. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1904/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  5. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1905/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  6. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1906/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  7. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1907/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  8. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  9. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1909/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  10. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1910/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  11. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1911/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  12. 12,0 12,1 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  13. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1913/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  14. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1914/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  15. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1915/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  16. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1918/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  17. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1920/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  18. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1921/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  19. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1922/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  20. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1923/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  21. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1925/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  22. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1926/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  23. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1927/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  24. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1928/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  25. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1929/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  26. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1930/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  27. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1931/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  28. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1932/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  29. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1934/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  30. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1935/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  31. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1936/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  32. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1937/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  33. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1938/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  34. 34,0 34,1 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1939/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  35. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1943/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  36. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1944/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  37. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1945/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  38. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1946/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  39. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1946/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  40. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1947/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  41. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1948/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  42. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1949/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  43. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1950/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  44. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  45. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1952/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  46. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1953/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  47. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1954/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  48. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1955/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  49. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1956/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  50. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1957/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  51. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1958/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  52. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1959/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  53. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1960/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  54. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1961/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  55. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1962/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  56. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1963/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  57. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1964/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  58. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1965/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  59. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1966/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  60. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1967/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  61. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1968/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  62. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1969/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  63. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1970/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  64. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1971/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  65. 65,0 65,1 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1972/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  66. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1973/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  67. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1974/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  68. 68,0 68,1 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1975/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
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  74. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1981/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  75. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1982/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  76. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1983/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  77. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1984/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
  78. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1985/index.html. Ανακτήθηκε την 2008-10-06. 
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Ikl.jpg Κίνδυνοι ΧρήσηςIkl.jpg

Αν και θα βρείτε εξακριβωμένες πληροφορίες
σε αυτήν την εγκυκλοπαίδεια
ωστόσο, παρακαλούμε να λάβετε σοβαρά υπ' όψη ότι
η "Sciencepedia" δεν μπορεί να εγγυηθεί, από καμιά άποψη,
την εγκυρότητα των πληροφοριών που περιλαμβάνει.

"Οι πληροφορίες αυτές μπορεί πρόσφατα
να έχουν αλλοιωθεί, βανδαλισθεί ή μεταβληθεί από κάποιο άτομο,
η άποψη του οποίου δεν συνάδει με το "επίπεδο γνώσης"
του ιδιαίτερου γνωστικού τομέα που σας ενδιαφέρει."

Πρέπει να λάβετε υπ' όψη ότι
όλα τα άρθρα μπορεί να είναι ακριβή, γενικώς,
και για μακρά χρονική περίοδο,
αλλά να υποστούν κάποιο βανδαλισμό ή ακατάλληλη επεξεργασία,
ελάχιστο χρονικό διάστημα, πριν τα δείτε.



Επίσης,
Οι διάφοροι "Εξωτερικοί Σύνδεσμοι (Links)"
(όχι μόνον, της Sciencepedia
αλλά και κάθε διαδικτυακού ιστότοπου (ή αλλιώς site)),
αν και άκρως απαραίτητοι,
είναι αδύνατον να ελεγχθούν
(λόγω της ρευστής φύσης του Web),
και επομένως είναι ενδεχόμενο να οδηγήσουν
σε παραπλανητικό, κακόβουλο ή άσεμνο περιεχόμενο.
Ο αναγνώστης πρέπει να είναι
εξαιρετικά προσεκτικός όταν τους χρησιμοποιεί.

- Μην κάνετε χρήση του περιεχομένου της παρούσας εγκυκλοπαίδειας
αν διαφωνείτε με όσα αναγράφονται σε αυτήν

IonnKorr-System-00-goog.png



>>Διαμαρτυρία προς την wikia<<

- Όχι, στις διαφημίσεις που περιέχουν απαράδεκτο περιεχόμενο (άσεμνες εικόνες, ροζ αγγελίες κλπ.)


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