Open Science Wiki

Turner Blackey Turner Blackey 22 May 2023

What is radiation? Oversimplified

  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Oversimplification
  • 3 Sources of Radiation
  • 4 How to protect yourself from Radiation?
  • 5 Conclusion

Radiation? It's like invisible energy that can mess with atoms and cells. Some types can make you sick or increase cancer risks...

Aight, Just Kidding. Do not jot that down in your exam paper. In examination point of view, remember and write this instead for 1 point (not eligible for 3 points and more):

"Energy that travels in waves or particles, potentially causing changes in atoms and cells."

Radiation, It's like this sneaky, invisible energy that travels around in waves or little particles. Think of it as these tiny ninja-like rays that can really mess with atoms and cells in our bodies.

Now, there are different types of radiation, but let'…

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BliepMonster BliepMonster 30 April 2023

list of hypothetical elementary particles

  • Preons
  • Axion
  • Sterile neutrino
  • Mirror particles
  • Graviton
  • Magnetic monopole
  • 4th generation of quarks
  • Supersymmetrical particles
  • Acceleron
  • Chameleon
  • More dark matter candidates, such as WIMPs, WISPs, and SIMPs
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Henriex Delacour Henriex Delacour 24 June 2021

Black Hole

″TON 618 is a hyperluminous, broad-absorption-line, radio-loud quasar located near the border of the constellations Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices, approximately 10.4 billion light-years from Earth. It possesses one of the most massive black holes ever found, with a mass of 66 billion M


Canes Venatici

Right ascension

12h 28m 24.9s[1]


+31° 28′ 38″[1]




3.18 Gpc (10.4 Gly)[1]



Apparent magnitude (V)


Notable features

Hyperluminous quasar

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WolfCraftCHC WolfCraftCHC 18 April 2021

My multiverse theory (and explaining why its wrong)

ok ok so if you haven't heard of the multiverse theory, it is the belief that there are infinite universes like our own but different... ummm lemme explain on that... so here is a comin explanation, lets say I had the choice to eat either pancakes or waffles for breakfast, lets say I chose waffles! then I would live in a universe where I ate a waffle for breakfast, but when I make that choice a new universe is created where I ate pancakes. ok cool, now what if in one universe someone or something caused the entire multiverse to go boom. then all the universes would go away and now there is nothing right? then if there are infinite versions of that, then it could happen all the time, so I guess that means that theory is wrong... NAAAAAAAAA…

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Andershock Andershock 23 January 2020

Stealthseeker Plasma Rifle

The Stealthseeker Plasma Rifle is a highly dangerous and lethal piece of machinery used by the US military. The weapon was first constructed in Area 51 by Pinewood Labs, Inc on October 17th, 2019. New upgrades are being planned and added to the Stealthseeker every day, and the government is still configuring a plan on how to use it effectively and efficiently.

It is unknown how this weapon operates, as its abilities defy the laws of physics. It seems to be of astral capacity, as it is able to shoot plasma beams that melt any disintegrate anything on contact.

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Christian Sirolli Christian Sirolli 1 February 2017

DIY pH Paper

I found this article online. I edited it so it can look good here:

Making Homemade Litmus

The pH scale measures how likely a substance is to give up protons (or H+ atoms) and how likely that substance is to accept protons. Many molecules, including dyes, will change their structure by either accepting protons from an acidic environment (one that readily gives up protons) or donating protons to a basic environment (one that readily accepts protons). Testing for pH is an essential part of many chemistry and biology experiments. This test can be done by coating paper strips with dyes that will change into different colors in the presence of an acid or a base.
Method 1 Making Homemade pH Paper with Cabbage
1 - Chop up some red cabbage.
You will nee…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 13 February 2016

Gravitational Waves

  • 1915 - Albert Einstein publishes general theory of relativity, explains gravity as the warping of spacetime by mass or energy
  • 1916 - Einstein predicts massive objects whirling in certain ways will cause spacetime ripples—gravitational waves
  • 1936 - Einstein has second thoughts and argues in a manuscript that the waves don't exist—until reviewer points out a mistake
  • 1962 - Russian physicists M. E. Gertsenshtein and V. I. Pustovoit publish paper sketch optical method for detecting gravitational
  • waves—to no notice
  • 1969 - Physicist Joseph Weber claims gravitational wave detection using massive aluminum cylinders—replication efforts fail
  • 1972 - Rainer Weiss of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge independently proposes optical …
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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 2 August 2015

The Milky Way Times Daily/IssueBETA

What's Inside

  • Recent Changes
  • Daily Science News
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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 7 July 2015

Daily Science/Issue 08

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are — a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement.

In previous studies, photons have typically been entangled by one dimension of their quantum properties — usually the direction of their polarization.

In the new study, researchers demonstrated that they could slice up and entangle each photon pair into multiple dimensions using quantum properties such as the photons’ energy and spin. This method, called hyperentanglement, allows each photon pair to carry much more data than was possible with previous methods.

Quantum entanglement could allow us…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 4 March 2015

When we divide by 3

Hi people this is draken. I am back again with the 'When we divide by a #' series blog. Now I had created a blog about dividing numbers by seven and it still is in beta mode. The thing is I won't be editing it anymore until someone comes and helps me in the pattern the thing was that was very tough working with the division of a numebr by 7. Real tough man! So I ceased research on it but now I am back with a very simple one. The pattern is very easy and simple to understand and remember in this one. Let me show you.

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 15 February 2015

Website Issue

Please select the following that best fits the issue: Navigation Problem Other

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 15 February 2015

Mobile Issues

Please select one of the following that best fits with the issue: Navigation Problem Other

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 4 February 2015

When We Divide By 7(Beta)

Hello guys, Draken here. Now the thing is that uhm... well, this is not really a real edit. I mean I really haven't come up with a text material so this blog is still in its beta position but I have got some of the data already collected and formatted into a table so that you guys can check the way things are happening when we divide by seven. The last three column headings containing the number '4, 7 and 8' actually tell where a non-recurring corresponding number is occuring. Just look at the data below and you will see. 

Conclusion:So I would conclude that this blog is not fully formatted and edited yet because I lack some text material for this blog which will come soon!

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 4 February 2015

Multiplication Facts with 9

9 is a number (obviously) and it has many uses as well as all the other numbers in the world. But today, I am going to focus on telling you some tricks on how to find the answer to a "

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 3 February 2015

When we divide by 11

Hello guys, it has been a long time... well, to be exact it has been 17 days or 408 hours or 24,480 minutes or 1,468,800 seconds.. some calculation, huh? I used a calculator! So I love to experiment with numbers and arithematics and all that thing. I mean I love math. I love playing with numbers and all that stuff. Due to this reason only I have been able to remember the Multiplication Table upto 25! So... in one of my previous blogs titled 'When we divide by 9' we observed a pattern in the series of division of natural numbers by 9. It was a very fascinating... Well this one's going to be more fascinating than that! So let's roll.

Now, if you are interested in the process of this problem then please keep a rough notebook and a pen/pencil …

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 31 January 2015

Contacting Us

Welcome to Contact Us!

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 21 January 2015

Changing the font of Text

Only works on Classic Editor Here is how you can change the font you use when you're typing (This does NOT apply to the whole wiki, just the text in the code)

If you want to have the word "Hi" in a different font, you would follow this code: Code

TEXT is where you put the text you want to have the font.

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 17 January 2015

Daily Science/Issue 07


Author: Seth Shostak

The Kepler Mission has a simple objective: find small planets around other stars - worlds like Earth that could possibly spawn life. It promises to be one of the most exciting astronomy projects of the coming decade.

In the last half-dozen years, astronomers have made a remarkable discovery: roughly 5 - 10% of stars similar to the Sun have planets. They have observed this fraction of stars to periodically wobble in response to the orbital motion of unseen worlds. However, every one of the planets detected by this method is hefty, typically the size of Jupiter or larger. This preponderance of massive worlds is an inevitable consequence of the detection scheme: only large planets induce measurable wobbles.…

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 15 January 2015

Emoji Shortcuts

by editing this blog post.}}

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 11 January 2015

Kid in College makes "Wonder Gel"

A college student Joe Landolina  creates a gel like mixture for armies and the navy to use when injured. The mixture is "Smart Bio Material" according to Joe Landolina, that works with the body meaning it is not for one type of cell tissue called Extracellular Matrix (aka ECM) which contains cells. This gel is a miracle because not all gels that stop bleeding instantly will form around that individuals Extracellular Matrix. Joe Landolina says he hopes to get this gel out to the public in a year. 

"Imagine you are a soldier at the battle field. Now, you get hit with a bullet and you a bleeding badly. This wound will only take 3 minutes to kill you but by the time the medics arrive you will already be dead. Now imagine you have this gel that …

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 10 January 2015

Daily Science/Issue 06

Sorry Sorry Sorry!

I know it has been almost two months and I haven't posted any interesting news or updates related to science. But your patience sure paid well. Okay, I saw this great website called which has a cool way to get you updated with science news. When you click on a particular article they take you to a completely new webpage which explains you things graphically! Like the picture on right.

Not only that! There is an awesome background that works things while you scroll down.

It is awesome. So go for this article on Kepler's findings based on Exoplanets. Click below on the image!

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 5 January 2015

Practice Editing Blog

Here is where I tryout different Templates and fonts and new techniques of editing. Any feedback? Please say so on my Message Wall .

  • Hi
  • Welcolme
  • Random Text
  • This is text to test new bullet
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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 18 December 2014

Pills of Frozen Feces Fight off Bacteria

Daily Science Blog #1

Scientists and Doctors have proven that frozen feces in pill form from a healthy individual can treat/cure a potential killer disease. I know, it sounds gross! Ilan Youngster, a physician, did a new study. He took healthy gut bacteria from donated stool/feces. Then, they froze the microbes into capsules. “This greatly prolongs the shelf life of the microbes” says Science News. Ilan’s research team gave capsules of the frozen stool/feces to 20 patients that had C. diff infections. 14 out of 20 patients had their infections cleared by taking two day regimens with this new capsule. Thats incredible!

And gross! The four people that weren’t cured, were cured after the second round of capsules. The researchers reported that t…

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Hunkilicous12 Hunkilicous12 17 December 2014

About Me

I have decided to write a blog about me so you guys can get to know me better. I started kindergarten when I was 4 years old (early, right?) and I have been wanting to learn ever since. In 6th grade I got the "Best Technology Student Award" for being a so called "tech-geek" and for helping students with laptop problems. I love technology and how it works and I also love how technology ties in with Science and Math. I am currently in 7th grade right now and I currently take Spanish, General Music, STEM, Social Studies, Math, Science LA, Drama, etc.

I volunteer at the school library, and so I check out books for students and check books into the library. I also put books away and make new covers for the books that need them. As I said above, I…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 13 November 2014


Okay so I haven't watched this movie yet but already read its plot and trailer on the internet. The movie is awesome no doubt but the plot only tells me how impossible it is for us to leave the planet the planet in future(when we haven't yet evolved). I mean that our logic and rationality always stops us from thinking beyond the boundaries(the good point about intuitions). I don't think this species will die on any other planet. If we have to die, we will die here only. I can never imagine humans going to a different planet. It will not happen until we have evolved into some hominid species and that will take about 8000 or 10000 years to happen. Now you ask me why so less time when Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals took a very long time to evol…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 11 November 2014

Daily Science/Issue 05

Now when I ask you how did scientists calculate the age of the Universe or earth, you will ponder for a while and the most general answer would be it takes one year for light to travel a light year so that's how they could calculate the age. Now we know the age of Universe is around 13.7 billion years So is this possible for us to calculate the age of the universe so quickly or is it a guess??

No it is not the guess. Let's find out the working behind the calculation of ages.

  • 1 How are the ages of the Earth and universe calculated?
    • 1.1 Introduction
  • 2 Age of the Earth from seasonal rings and layers
  • 3 Age of galaxies from the travel time of light
  • 4 Conclusion

Many independent measurements have established that the Earth and the universe are billions of y…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 9 November 2014

When we divide by 9

So I came up with some obvious and interesting results one day while playing with numbers:

1/9 = 0.1111111....

2/9 = 0.2222222...

3/9 = 1/3 = 0.3333...

4/9 = 0.444...

5/9 = 0.555...

6/9 = 2/3 = 0.666...

7/9 = 0.7777....

8/9 = 0.888...

9/9 = 1.0000....

10/9 = 10*(1/9) = 1.1111....

11/9 = 10/9 + 1/9 = 1.1111... 0.1111... = 1.2222....

And if you do it furthermore(I don't have time to tell you about the pattern right now), you will get the pattern.


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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 9 November 2014

Daily Science/Issue 04

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 What lies beyond our 4 dimensions
    • 2.1 Then I understood
    • 2.2 But what about dimensions higher than 5

Hello friends, here I am sitting and wondering how to cramm every formula of gravitation and yet I am tempted to look into another interesting article by Michio Kaku on Hyperspace. I am not really old enough to know all the basic concepts and all the physics and theory behind these TOPICS but I do find my interest in things such as Space and universe that's why I just post them right.

I am not a Physicist, not an astronomer, not an astrophysicist but I am a student. Let's Roll.

When I was a child, I used to visit the Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco. I would spend hours fascinated by the carp, who lived in a very shallow pond just…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 7 November 2014

Daily Science/Issue 03

The following news has been collected from [] You’ve heard of rogue planets, floating through the universe untethered to any solar system. Now meet rogue stars, which drift through space with no galaxy to call home. A new study has come to the startling conclusion that as many as half of all stars in the universe may be rogue, having been ejected from their birthplaces by galaxy collisions or mergers.

Astronomers James Bock of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and Asantha Cooray of the University of California, Irvine, didn’t set off to discover a huge population of rogue stars. They wanted to study early galaxies by looking at extragalactic background light, or the EBL. The EBL is essentially all the accu…

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 29 October 2014

Daily Science/Issue 02

Electrons are elementary particles -- indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state -- the electron wave function -- can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.ew research by physicists from Brown University puts the profound strangeness of quantum mechanics in a nutshell -- or, more accurately, in a helium bubble. Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron -- the electron's wave function -- can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons …

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Drakenkaul Drakenkaul 6 October 2014

Daily Science/Issue 01

Hi everyone, this is draken!

The more curious we are about a topic, the easier it is to learn information about that topic. New research publishing online October 2 in the Cell Press journal Neuron provides insights into what happens in our brains when curiosity is piqued. The findings could help scientists find ways to enhance overall learning and memory in both healthy individuals and those with neurological conditions. "Our findings potentially have far-reaching implications for the public because they reveal insights into how a form of intrinsic motivation -- curiosity -- affects memory. These findings suggest ways to enhance learning in the classroom and other settings," says lead author Dr. Matthias Gruber, of University of California…

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Adamantvalves Adamantvalves 24 July 2014

Why U Type Sanitary Diaphragm Valves Are the Ideal Valves for Industries That Operate Under Strict Hygienic Conditions

The name diaphragm is derived from a flexible disc which comes in contact with a seat at the top of the valve to form a seal. Diaphragm valves are among the most common valves available in the market today. This valve is a flexible element that responds to pressure transmitting the force to open and close. This type of valves is somehow related to pinch valves, but unlike the pinch valves, diaphragm valves use an elastomeric liner in the body to separate the closure element from the flow stream.

Diaphragm valve can either be manual or automated and are mainly used for shutoff purposes in many industries. The older version of this valve could not control and regulate the flow of medium but the latest version has been designed to meet these r…

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Jackyfield Jackyfield 24 July 2014

What Are the Use of Neodymium Block Magnet

Different magnets are used for different purposes. You can get a wide range of verity of magnet in an open market. They differ in shapes and sizes. According to their shapes and sized they are applied in different segments. Though magnets came in many forms, but a Neodymium Block Magnet is always in rectangular shape. Usually they are found in black or dark gray color. Block magnets are composed of alnico, which is however a blend of material like aluminum and nickel and cobalt.

The main feature of Neodymium Block Magnet is that it has both the north and South Pole on both the opposite trimmings end of the Block. Block magnets are used in many science teaching experiments. They are safe to handle. They are widely used for all purposes as it is …

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Samaterial Samaterial 24 July 2014

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers through Titanium Tube

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers can be referred to the heat exchangers which are used to transfer heat from one fluid to another or sometimes one medium to another medium. Here the fluid go through a set of titanium tubes, and at the same time another fluid passes all the way through the shell enclosed with the tubes. Thus the titanium heat exchangers are useful for the function application involving high temperature and pressure, or the circumstances where fluid includes particles.

For the recent days industrial application two major types of  Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are used, and  those are firstly U- Tube Heat exchangers and secondly Straight Tube Heat exchangers. The U- Tube Heat exchangers make use of a U-shaped tubes fixed, whil…

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Martin J Spellberg Martin J Spellberg 26 August 2020

How to make science cheaper

As shown in how to avoid hoaxes in science, academic Machiavellism makes the official "scientific community" fail to follow the scientific method. And since fighting for financial funds is one of the major causes of academic Machiavellism, it is important for science to make the experiments cheaper, which also brings the advantage of allowing anybody to afford repeating the experiments themselves instead of relying on what "scientists" say (which is why experiment descriptions on this wiki are transparent for repeatability). This page is about doing that. One first advice: do NOT throw away scientific equipment just because you no longer use it. It is better to either barter it for other scientific equipment that you do need, or simply sel…

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Penguinz0 Penguinz0 9 February 2013


There are many variables to be considered when doing this experment. You have to take into consideration: the height of which the object is being dropped from, the size of the object, the mass and density of the object, the object you are using, and much more. 

   You need to consider the height from which the object is being dropped from because obviously an object that is being dropped from only a few feet will have a much smaller splatter size and impact force then the object that is dropped from a much higher altitued.

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Cr1TiKaL Cr1TiKaL 29 January 2013


So in conclusion, an object that is bigger and has more mass will create a bigger splatter size/creater then an object with not very much mass. Momentum also plays an important part in how much force the object will have when it hits the ground.

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Smrrna134 Smrrna134 8 May 2012

Is teleportation REAL??

Is teleportation scientificly possible? Or are portals possible?

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