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A plant is a system made up of three different organs [1] inside the plant that work together. Each plant part/organ has its own function. The leaves, stem and roots make up the plant system.


Location: Out from the stem. 

Function: To make food. Leaves make up the major structure of plants that are involved in the production of food by photosynthesis. [2]

Leaves typically have 4 layers of tissue. [3]

  1. Upper epidermis — This is a single layer of cells on the upper surface of the leaf, which aids water conservation. [4]
  2. Palisade layer — This layer consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells. The cells are filled with chloroplasts and carry on most of the photosynthesis in the leaf. [5]
  3. Spongy layer — 'A layer of loosely packed and irregularly-shaped chlorophyll-bearing cells that fills the part of a leaf between the palisade layer and the lower epidermis.' [6]
  4. Lower epidermis — This is a single layer of cells on the lower surface of the leaf that contains stomata and guard cells. [7]

A leaf is made up of different cells. There are chloroplasts, cuticle veins, xylem, phloem and guard cells.

The stomata are tiny openings that are mostly found on the underside of the leaves. Stomata controls the water movement as wells as the exchange of gases in the leaf.


Location: The middle of the plant.

Function: To hold the plant up. it supports leaves and connects them to the root. [8]

The stem is made up of many different cells. It also has the plant's "Organs" in it.